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Mob 9017557576 Er.Akshay Sharma’s ADVANCE STUDY MATERIAL Chapter -10 Light: Reflectio a! Refractio Refection of light :- when a ray of light falls on a polished smooth surface such as mirror it return back into the same medium. Th
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    Mob 9017557576  Er.AkshaySharma’s ADVANCE STUDY MATERIAL   Chapter -10   Light: Reflectio a! Refractio    Refection o light    :- when a ray of light falls on a polished smooth surface such as mirror it return back into the same medium. This is called reection of light . Laws o refection  The incident ray, the normal to the mirror at the point of incidenceand reected ray, all lie in the same plane.Image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect. The size of the image is eual to that of the ob!ect. The image formed is as far behind the mirror as the ob!ect is ii front it. Two type of spherical mirrorI. oncave mirrorII. onve# mirror I.Concave mirror  :- a spherical mirror whose reecting surface is curved inwards, face towards the centre of sphere is called concave mirror. It mostly forms real image. It converges the rays of light.  Convex mirror:-a spherical mirror whose refecting suraceis curved outwards is called convex mirror. It always ormsvirtual image. It diverges the rays o light. #e$ ter%& i &pherical %irror II.Pole:-   the centre of the reecting surface of a spherical mirroris a point called pole. $nd represented by %. Centre o curvature:-  The reecting surface of a sphericalmirror forms a part of a sphere. The centre of this sphere iscalled centre of curvature. &enoted by . Radius o curvature:-   the radius of the sphere of which thereecting surface of a spherical mirror forms a part is calledradius of curvature. $nd represented by '. Principal axis:- $n imaginary straight line passing through thepole and centre of curvature of a spherical mirror is calledprincipal a#is. Principal ocus:-  The rays of light coming parallel a#is, afterreection from the concave mirror meet at a point on theprincipal a#is, this point is called  principal. ocal   length:-  Thedistance between the focus and the pole of the mirror is calledfocal length. ocal length :-  The distance between the focus and the pole of the mirror is called focal length. !se o concave mirror:- I. oncave mirrors are commonly used in torches, search-lights and vehicles headlights to get powerful parallelbeams of light.  II.It is often used as shaving mirrors to see a larger image of the face.III.The dentists use concave mirrors to see large image of teeth of patients.I(.)arge concave mirrors are used to concentrate sunlight toproduce heat in solar furnaces. !se o Convex mirror  I. onve# mirror are commonly used as rear-view mirrors invehicles.II.It enables the driver to see tra*c behind him to facilitatesafe driving.III. onve# mirrors preferred because they always give anerect, though diminished, imageI(.They have a wider +eld of view as they are curvedoutwards.$ll this will not possible with a concave or plane mirror. ew Cartesian sign convention or mirror I.The ob!ect is always placed to the left of mirror.II.$ll distances parallel measured to the right of the srcin along # a#is are taken as positive while those measured to the left of the srcin along /# a#is are taken as negative.III.&istances measured perpendicular to and above the  principal a#is along y a#is are taken as positive.I(.$ll distance parallel to the principal a#is are measured from the pole of the mirror.(.&istance measured perpendicular to and below the principala#is along /y a#is are taken as negative.(I.The pole of mirror is taken as origin.(II.The principal a#is of the mirror is taken as #-a#is....  Mirror for%'la a! %agificatio  There is a relationship between v,u and f which is e#pressedas  ⅟v+⅟u=⅟f where   u0 ob!ect distance,   v0image distance, f0focal length, Magificatio:- it is e#pressed as the ratio of height of the image to the heightof the ob!ect. It is usually represented by m.m0height of the image h12height of the ob!ecth3agni+cation m 0h12h0-v2u4eight of the ob!ect is taken to be positive as the ob!ect isusually placed above the principal a#is. The height of theimage should be taken as positive for virtual images. $nd it isnegative for real images.$ negative sign in magni+cation shows that image is real. $ndpositive sign shows that image is virtual.
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