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AP World History Chapter 15 Outline

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AP World Chapter 15 Outline by Stearns.
  Chapter 15 NotesThe West and the Changing World BalanceI. IntroductionA. 1400 – world in period of transition1. ownfall of Ara! caliphate . #pread of $ongols%. Who would ta&e new international trade role' $a(!e China'B. But)*nter the *uropeans – finall(+ the(,-e !een !ehind e-er(one for 000 (ears1. Ital(+ #pain+ /ortugal too& leadership role . Aericas couldn,t respond to *uropean in-asionsC. e( 2uestion – wh( did different ci-ili3ations react differentl('1. This could !e a &e( 2uestion – notice the word differencesa. This class ust lo-es to copare ci-ili3ationsII. The ecline of the ld rder A.1 00 – $iddle *ast run !( B(3antine *pire 6North7 – Ara! *pire 6#outh71. But)Tur&s too& o-er B(3antines in 145%+ 1 5 $ongols 8 CaliphB. #ocial and Cultural Change in the $iddle *ast1. 9eligious leaders gained power o-er artistic leaders in Ara! worlda. New piet( – thin& a!out orthodo: $uslis toda( !. 9eligious art theesc. 9ationalis of ;reece 6<ellenis7 now seen as !ad+ a threat1. )don,t thin& this is ust Ara! world+ *uropeans getting scared of logic=rationalis as well . *conoic shiftsa. As centrali3ed power slows+ pro-incial leaders 6landlords7 get ore power 1. <)what an interesting pattern I,-e ne-er seen !efore !. But)!ad things resulted1. >ower agricultural (ield . >ess ta:es%. >ess trade4. Indian cean trade still strongc. A gradual decline+ not sudden li&e in 9oed. But)e-en though politicall( wea&+ other political areas too& ore power 1. ttoan Tur&s too& o-er control – ore powerful than !eforeC. A /ower ?accu in International >eadership1. ttoan Tur&s not an international leader li&e Islaic caliphate . $ongols pro-ided ne:t glo!al leader a. *ncouraged interregional trade !. *:changed technolog(=ideasc. *nd of epire turned to sea!orne trade+ as land trade less protected. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal1. $ing @!rilliant d(nast( too& o-er 1%8144a. pushed out $ongols first !. re8esta!lished tri!utar( lin&s with #outheast Asian states . #tate8sponsored trade e:peditionsa. Adiral( henghe – 1405814%% led -ast+ unparalleled fleet1. Dorer eunuch – wh( do (ou thin& leaders li&e eunuchs for ad-isors' . Brought fleet of +000 troops – scared the willies out of local leaders   !. *-entuall( !rought !ac& – threatened the Confucian !ureaucrats1. 9ee!er – the( don,t li&e erchants ha-ing power  . ther reasons – costa. $one( !etter spent !uilding Beiing+ fighting $ongols%. What if Chinese &ept trading' >ost chance to !e world power a. aint( little *uropean ships no atch !. Dollowed Chinese pattern of spending one( internall(+ practicall(1. Not li&e West+ where power is udged !( e:pansion4. Instead – wor&ed on infrastructure – population increased+ anufacturing ipro-ed5. Ara!s on decline+ $ongols d(ing out+ China not stepping to the plate)leads to)III. The 9ise of the WestA.Wh( is their rise surprising'1.#till awed !( other !ureaucracies .Church under attac& %.warrior aristocrats softened life – ridiculous tournaents=aror of ordinar( *uropeans falling aparta. faine !. -ulnera!le to !u!onic plague1. China,s population hit !( %0E . *urope lost %0 illiona. >ed to stri&es=peasant uprisingsB. #ources of (naisF $edie-al ?italit(1. Wh( was *urope still strong'a. #trong regional go-ernents created during feudalis !. $ilitar( inno-ations than&s to <undred Gears War 1. Nonaristocratic soldiers – regular gu(s not paid !o( go-,t . /aid !( central go-,t H ore ta:es H ore central power c. ;rowth of cities – helped coerced. Church content with capitalis – notice alliteratione. Technolog( ipro-ing – etalwor& C. Iitation and International /ro!les1. Technolog( pushes e:pansiona. uring $ongol period – *urope has ideal access1. Not controlled+ !ut still in-ol-ed in trade . Internal conflict spurs regions to ipro-e technolog( to win !attles . International Dactors push e:pansion !. Interest in lu:ur( goodsc. No!od( wants *uropean products+ so the( ha-e to pa( in gold1. *urope doesn,t ha-e gold)so)the( need to go find soed. Dears of a $usli threat1. Need to secure Western ports . Need to create sea trade since $uslis now control land trade. #ecular irections in the Italian 9enaissance1. Dirst)I can,t !elie-e we,re going to spend two paragraphs tal&ing a!out the 9enaissance when this was discussed ad nauseu in Western Ci- . West,s surge forward – re!irth of culture and political -iews of Classical *uropea. Artists create ore huan8centered wor&s of art – huanis !. Artist=writers pushed for own reputationc. Wor&s now secular+ and religious siultaneousl(  d. Ital( started – wealth( erchants want to ipress others – patrons1. <elp sponsor cultural acti-ities+ scholars – copetition*. <uan ?alues and 9enaissance Culture1. Docus of art changes – it,s a cultural re-olutiona. #u!ect – people+ nature+ portraits !. Created perspecti-ec. ?i-id+ realistic statues – li&e classic 9oe=;reece . But)not a full !rea& fro $edie-al World)usuall( had to in-ol-e religion too%. Change indset – loo&ing outwarda. Building ships+ pushing coerce !. A!itious cit(8state go-ernents funded new -enturesc. <uan a!ition+ pursuit of glor( focused on e:ploration=con2uestD. The I!erian #pirit of 9eligious $ission1. #panish and /ortugese rulers pushing ilitar(=religious agendaa. ;oal of aries – push Christianit(+ &ic& out Ara!s=ews !. ;o-ernent enforced Church codesc. In2uisition courts to enforce orthodo:(d. e()go-ernent with religious issionI?. Western *:pansionF The *:periental /haseA.*arl( *:plorations1.Western route to the Indies – spice trade area'a.?i-aldis fro ;enoa sailed off to the land of nowhere-ille !.$ostl( had to stic& to the coast of Africa .After 14%0+ soe na-igational pro!lespass=astrola!e – na-igation !( stars – fro Ara!s !.Ipro-ed apa&ingc.!ut)geographicall( inaccurate aps gi-e false confidenced.14J – ?asco de ;aa heads to Indian ceanB.Colonial /atterns1.<ow to a&e e:peditions profita!le'a.<enr( the Na-igator pushed for scientific+ intellectual+ religious+ econoic .Islands off Africa !ecae test ground for colonialisa.large agricultural estates1. sugar+ cotton+ to!acco !. !rought in sla-es !( /ortugese%. #uccess of earl( progras led to e:pansion4. Dorces influencing *uropean e:pansiona. inferiorities and fears 8 $uslis !. energies of 9enaissance erchantsc. econoic pressuresd. population surge?. utside the World Networ& A. Introduction1. Aerica=/ol(nesia not affected !( world e:change – the(,d !e centuries !ehind . New pro!les left ci-ili3ations -ulnera!leB. /olitical Issues in the Aericas1. 9esentent for leadershipa. Dor soe reason tri!ute regions tired of !eing ensla-ed+ sacrificed  . -ere:tension – difficult to control%. ther cultures de-eloping – a(!e would ha-e surpassed4. All irrele-ant+ !ecause when *uropeans arri-e)C. *:pansion+ $igration+ and Con2uest in /ol(nesia1. Between K th  and 14 th  spread eastward – <awaii – spread culturea. #ociet( in caste s(ste – ilitar( leaders=priests doinate !. No written language – oral histor(. Isolated Achie-eents !( the $aori1.  th  centur( – $aori in New ealanda. $ost ela!orate art !. $ilitar( leaders=priests ha-e great power c. #la-es . Because de-eloped in isolationa. ?ulnera!le to disease !. Inferior weaponsc. Cultural disintegration*. Adding up the Changes1. $aster plan that *uropeans would doinate or series of coincidences'a. /olitical insta!ilit( in Aericas !. e-eloped in isolation left technologicall( inferior c. ?ulnera!le to diseasesd. China decides not to continue pursuit of world trade doinatione. Indi-iduals tr( to ipro-e *urope,s trade deficit – <enr( the Na-igator f. $usli ipact on Africa less controlg. Africans don,t !enefit fro trade with $ongols?I. ;lo!al ConnectionsA.;lo!al contacts1.$usli traders=issionaries still acti-e .$ongols readil( shared ideas fro one end of epire to the other %.China ade new contacts4.But !( 1450)who would doinate ne:t was in flu:B.e( continuit(1.9egions re2uired trade to sur-i-ea.Africa relied on $iddle *ast !.#outheast Asia lin&ed to $usli traders=Chinac.Western *urope contacts increasingd.China+ India+ $iddle *ast see Africa=*urope as consuer sourceC. And that,s it)not that painful of a chapter+ agree'


Jul 23, 2017
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