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Carbon_filtering.ppt

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 Activated carbon is an adsorption medium and its use is considered an advanced technique for meeting many water quality demands. Treatment with activated carbon is not new and has in fact been used for thousands of years to improve the quality of drinking water.  It has been used in various forms (powdered and granular) around the globe in a multi-objective manner, removing heterogeneous compounds that produce color and are precursors to contaminants upon disinfection, trace organ
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   Activated carbon is an adsorption medium and its use is considered an advanced technique for meeting many water quality demands. Treatment with activated carbon is not new and has in fact been used for thousands of years to improve the quality of drinking water.   It has been used in various forms (powdered and granular) around the globe in a multi-objective manner, removing heterogeneous compounds that produce color and are precursors to contaminants upon disinfection, trace organic and inorganic contaminants, and taste-and-odor compounds.  Activated carbon also has the flexibility to be operated in both adsorption and biological modes. In the latter, it provides a large surface area for organisms to populate and biologically degrade contaminants.   Each particle/granule of carbon provides a large surface area/pore structure, allowing contaminants the maximum possible exposure to the active sites within the filter media. One pound (450 g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres (40 Hectares).  Activated carbon works via a process called adsorption, whereby pollutant molecules in the fluid to be treated are trapped inside the pore structure of the carbon substrate. Carbon filtering is commonly used for water purification, in air purifiers and industrial gas processing.   Carbon filters have been used for several hundred years and are considered one of the oldest means of water purification. Historians have shown evidence that carbon filtration may have been used in ancient   Egyptian   cultures for medical purposes and as a purifying agent   .  the first recorded use of a carbon filter to purify   potable   water on a large scale occurred in 19th century England.  Currently, carbon filters are used in individual homes as point-of-use   water filters  , groundwater remediation , landfill   leachate, industrial wastewater and, occasionally, in municipal water treatment facilities. They are also used as pre-treatment devices for reverse osmosis   systems and as specialized filters designed to remove chlorine-resistant cysts, such as Giardia and cryptosporidium .
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