Documents

Ch05-Competition-Cooperation.pdf

Categories
Published
of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
1 Competition and Cooperation Competition and Cooperation Chapter 5 KIN 380 – Psychological Analysis of Physical Activity After reading chapter After reading chapter 5 5 students will students will be able to: be able to: Understand the difference between competition and cooperation; Describe the process of competition; Detail the psychological studies of competition and cooperation; Discuss the social factors influencing competition and cooperation; Weinberg & Gould (2011, p.
Transcript
  1        KIN 380 –Psychological Analysis of Physical Activity                   Understand the difference between competition and cooperation;  Describe the process of competition;  Detail the psychological studies of competition and cooperation;  Discuss the social factors influencing competition and cooperation; Weinberg & Gould (2011, p. 103)                   Explain the reasons competition can be either a bad or a good experience;  Understand how to balance competitive and cooperative efforts; Weinberg & Gould (2011, p. 103)     A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event (Coakley, 1994)     A social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal  Coakley (1994) cited in Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 104)         Martens (1975) model competition is a process that involves four distinct phases.  Objective Competitive SituationObjective Competitive Situation  Subjective Competitive SituationSubjective Competitive Situation  ResponseResponse  CosequencesCosequencesWeinberg & Gould (2007, p. 105) Nadal & Federer, 2009  2         Stage 1: Objective Competitive Stage 1: Objective Competitive SituationSituation  situation in which performance is compared with some standard of excellence in the presence of at least one other person who is aware of the comparison.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 106)         Stage 2: Subjective competitive Stage 2: Subjective competitive situationsituation  How the person perceives, accepts, and appraises the objective competitive situation (influenced by personality factors such as competitiveness)  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 106)       To provide a reliable and valid measure of competitiveness ã 3 types:  1. Competitiveness  2. Win Orientation  3. Goal Orientation  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 107)         Stage 3: Response Stage 3: Response  Whether a person approaches or avoids an objective competitive situation (at the behavioral, physiological, and psychological levels)  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 106)         Stage 4: ConsequencesStage 4: Consequences  An evaluation (usually plus or minus) of one’s response to the standards of the performance comparison  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 106)             Triplett’s cyclistsTriplett’s cyclists  Cyclists were faster in competition than when alone racing against the clock.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 110)  3             Deutsch’s puzzlesDeutsch’s puzzles  CompetitionCompetition--group students were selfgroup students were self-- centered, directed efforts at beating centered, directed efforts at beating others, had closed communication, and others, had closed communication, and exhibited group conflict and distrust. exhibited group conflict and distrust. CooperationCooperation--group students group students communicated communicated openly, shared information, developed friendships, and solved more puzzles.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, pp. 110-111)             Competition and aggressionCompetition and aggression  Competition is not good or bad; it is neutral. Whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way the performers view competition.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 110)             Competition versus cooperation Competition versus cooperation and performanceand performance  Cooperation as opposed to competition produces superior performance, although results may depend on the nature of the task.  Competition can serve as a positive source of motivation to improve and refine skills.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, pp. 111-112)           !   !    #$ %&'() #$ %&'()  A sense of mission  Strong work ethic  Use of resources  A strong preparation ethic  A love of challenge and change  Ability to work with a team  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 106)             Competitive sport and success in life  Athletes in educational programs have Athletes in educational programs have higher educational aspirations than higher educational aspirations than nonathletes.nonathletes.  Athletes have no more or less career Athletes have no more or less career success than nonathletes.success than nonathletes.  Athletes are no more or less deviant than Athletes are no more or less deviant than nonathletes.nonathletes.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, p. 114)    *    * *  +*  +  Emphasis is placed on the following:  a. Philosophy of non-violence  b. Respect for self and others  c. Importance of fitness and the control of self  d. Confidence in physical skills  e. A sense of responsibility  Coakley (2007)  4 ,  #  !- ,  #  !-  Competition is neither inherently good nor bad. It is neither productive nor destructive. It is a neutral process; the environment determines its effects to a great degree.  Weinberg & Gould (2007, pp. 114-115)Kids First Soccer * *. ** *. */*/*  Cooperative Cooperative environmentenvironment  Individual progress  Effort  Progress  Part of Learning  Challenge, personal best  Personal progress, learning  Developmental learning  DimensionDimension  how success is defined  What is valued  How a person is evaluated  How mistakes are viewed  Why activity is engaged in  What a person is focused on  What the leader is focused on  Competitive Competitive EnvironmentEnvironment  doing better than others  Ability  Scoring, winning  Failure  Extrinsic rewards, recognition  Comparison to others  Normative comparisons / /   Component structure of games  Competitive means—competitive ends.  For example, King of the Mountain, 100-yard dash  Cooperative means—competitive ends  For example, soccer, basketball  Weinberg & Gould (2007) / /   Component structure of games  Individual means—individual ends  For example, calisthenics, cross-country skiing  Cooperative means—individual ends  For example, helping each other individually improve  Cooperative means—cooperative ends  For example, keeping a volleyball from hitting ground  Weinberg & Gould (2007) / /   Cooperative games  Cooperative games are games that emphasize both cooperative means and cooperative ends.  Cooperation can be taught through cooperative games.  Cooperative games can be devised by changing the rules of traditional games.  Weinberg & Gould (2007) / /   General principles of cooperative games  Maximize participation  Maximize opportunities to learn sport and movement skills  Do not keep score of game  Weinberg & Gould (2007)

Unit_1_Test_(rtf)

Jul 23, 2017
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks