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Design Concepts - SOLIDS & STRUCTURES

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Structural Design Concepts Failure Theory Working stress Design Allowable stress Design Load factors
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  2E4: SOLIDS & STRUCTURES  Lecture 16 Dr. Bidisha Ghosh Notes: http://www.tcd.ie/civileng/Staff/Bidisha.Ghosh/Solids & Structures  Types of Loading There are four basic types of loading (in order of complexity). ãTension   ãCompression   ãTorsion ãBending   Sometimes, two or more basic types of loading can act simultaneously on a member of a structure or machine. This is a compression testing machine. The different members are under different types of loading. 1. The specimen tested is under compression. 2. The two side bars (N) are under tension. 3. The screw is subjected to twist or torsion. 4. The crosshead is under bending.  Types of Loading Dead Loads : The dead load are the external loads that are relatively constant over time, including the weight of the structure itself. Live Loads: Loads that work over shorter durations, such as, weight of human beings, furniture, impact loading etc. Environmental Load (Wind Loads, Snow Loads, Earthquake Loads etc.) : When structures block the flow of wind, the wind’s kinetic energy is converted into potential energy of pressure, which causes a wind loading. Earthquakes produce loadings on structure through its interaction with the ground and its response characteristics. Other Loads (Hydrostatic and soil pressure etc.): When structures are used to retain water, soil, or granular materials, the  pressure developed by these loadings becomes an important criterion for their design.  How things fail? Buckling
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