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    A Study of the Development and Significance of the Idea of the ‘Image of God’ from its Origins in Genesis  through its Historical-Philosophical Interpretations to Contemporary Concerns in Science and Phenomenology  by John Haydn Gurmin, M.A. Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Presented to: The Department of Philosophy  National University of Ireland, Maynooth 29 th  October, 2010 Head of Department of Philosophy: Dr Michael Dunne Supervisor: Dr Mette Lebech Co-Supervisor: Dr Cyril McDonnell    Then God said, ‘Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.’ So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God   he created them, male and female he created them. (Genesis: 1:26-27, NRSV).   iii C O N T E N T S Acknowledgements vi Abbreviations viii I  NTRODUCTION  1   CHAPTER I BIBLICAL REFLECTIONS ON THE MEANING OF 9 THE IMAGE OF GOD (BESELEM ELOHIM) 1.1 The Image of God as Encountered in the Old Testament 11 1.2 ‘Male and Female He Created them’ 22 1.3 God’s Rule and its Royal Connotations 33 1.4 The Biblical Context and the ‘Image of God’ 39  CHAPTER II JEWISH-HELLENISTIC UNDERSTANDINGS OF THE IDEA OF BESELEM ELOHIM 43 2.1 Historical Developments which lead to the Targum Translations 44 2.1.1 Targum HaShivim- The Greek Septuagint 46   2.1.2 Syriac Targum — The  Peshitta  47 2.2 Targum Interpretations of Beselem Elohim 48 2.3 Ancient Greek Philosophical Developments 52   2.3.1  Phantasia and  Phantasmata  (Imagination and Images) 61 2.4 Philo’s Interpretation of the Septuagint   66 2.4.1 Philo’s influence on Jewish Theology and Law 71 2.5 Plotinus and Neo-Platonism 75 2.5.1 Image and the One 78 2.6 Summation: Jewish-Hellenistic Context and the ‘Image of God’ 79  CHAPTER III FROM BESELEM ELOHIM TO IMAGO DEI: THE CHRISTIAN SYNTHESIS 82 3.1 A Consideration of Christian Anthropology with Regard to the ‘Image of God’ and the ‘Fall’ 84 3.2 New Testament Interpretation of Beselem Elohim as Referring to Christ 86 3.2.1 Christ’s as the Image of God 88 3.2.2 Christ’s Lived Historical Existence and the  Imago Dei  90 3.2.3 Christ as  Emmanuel 93 3.3 The Augustinian Synthesis 95   3.3.1 Augustine’s  De Trinitate  and the  Imago Dei  100 3.4 Alcuin:  De Dignitate Conditionis Humanae  111 3.5 Bonaventure: ‘Mirroring’ and the  Imago Dei  114 3.6 Medieval Jewish and Arabic Reflections on the  Imago Dei  118 3.7 Aquinas and the Medieval Synthesis 120 CHAPTER IV RENAISSANCE AND MODERN APPROACHES TO THE ‘IMAGE OF GOD’ IDEA 133 4.1 Context: The Renaissance Period 135 4.2 The idea of the Image of God in Renaissance Writing 138 4.2.1 Petrarch and Ficino — Man as a ‘Microcosm’ 140 4.2.2 Pico’s Critique of Man as a ‘Microcosm’ 144  iv 4.2.3 Pomponazzi, Morality and the ‘Image of God’ 148 4.3 Reformation and Reformed Approaches to the Idea of the  Imago Dei  150 4.3.1 John Calvin’s Reformed Theology and the  Imago Dei  154 4.3.2 Paul Tillich — Modern Protestant Theological Reflections on  Imago Dei  158 4.4 Modern Philosophical Approaches to the  Imago Dei  159 4.4.1 Modern Philosophy and Mechanistic Views 163 4.4.2 Hume’s Reflections on Human Reason 165 4.5 Kant on the Image of God and on the Question of the Existence of God 168 4.6 Summation of Historical Approach to the ‘Image of God’ Idea 172 CHAPTER    V ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES   (1859),  NEO-DARWINISM AND THE NON-EXISTENCE OF GOD 175 5.1 Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution 179 5.2 Evolution: One Theory or Many Theories? 184 5.3 The Neo-Darwinian Account of Evolution 187 5.4 Neo-Darwinism and the Non-Existence of the Proper Object of the Image (God) 191 5.5 The Neo-Darwinian Natural Scientific Method and the Question of ‘What it means to be a Human?’ A Change of Methodology Required? 201 5.6 Conclusion 209 CHAPTER    VI   A   PHENOMENOLOGICAL CRITIQUE OF NATURALISM AND ITS UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IT MEANS TO BE HUMAN 211 6.1 Edmund Husserl’s Philosophical Critique of Naturalism (Scientism) 214 6.1.1 The Phenomenological Critique of Both Scientism and the Natural Scientific Method 221 6.1.2  Ideas : an Expansion of ‘Philosophy as Rigorous Science’ 224 6.2 Husserl’s Early and Later Phenomenological Developments 226 6.3 Edith Stein’s Position in Relation to Husserlian Methodology 232 6.3.1 Stein’s Phenomenological Approach to the Question of What it Means to be Human 233 6.3.2 The Structure of the Human Individual in On Empathy 236 6.3.3 Constitution (  Konstitution ) in the Early Works 245 6.3.4 The Constitution of the Psycho-Physical Individual 253 The Pure ‘I’ 254 The Physical Body (  Körper  )   and the Lived Body (  Leib ) 256 The Contribution of Feelings to the Constitution of the Human Individual 259 The Foreign Living Body 260 The Constitution of the Person 261 Person and Value-Hierarchy 265 6.4 The Philosophy of Psychology and Humanities: An Investigation of Causality and Motivation 266 6.5 The Human Type and the Importance of Education in the Unfolding of the Human Individual 270 6.6 Some Preliminary Conclusions 275 CHAPTER    VII   STEIN’S PHENOMENOLOGICAL ASCENT TO THE EXISTENCE OF GOD (THE ORIGIN OF THE IMAGE) 277 7.1 Stein’s Phenomenological Starting Point 278 7.1.1 What is the Being of which I am Conscious? 282 7.1.2 The Experience of Finite Being as Analogical to Eternal Being 285 7.1.3 The Emptiness of the Pure I 286 7.2 The Contingency of the I, Its Content and the Felt Experience of Security 288 7.2.1 The Contingency of the I 288

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