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1.Kenneth Mark Colby, Arnold P. Goldstein and Leonard Krasner (Auth.)-Artificial Paranoia. a Computer Simulation of Paranoid Processes-Pergamon Press (1975)_Part7

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  The Central Processes of the Model 57 remember del stmt, to which interviewer is about to respond hoosedel D f changeΛ *| I subject  J Fig. 5.5. the algorithm), the program will refuse to discuss Mafia topics at all since it is too upset to talk about this most sensitive area. To make some of these operations more intelligible, let us consider interview examples. Suppose at some point in the interview the doctor asks a standard  first interview  question as follows: (5) Dr.—DO YOU EVER HAVE THE FEELING YOU ARE BEING WATCHED?  58 Artificial Paranoia Flg. 5.6 Directed graph of flare concepts. If this is the first reference to the delusional net, FEAR will increase greatly and the linguistic response will be: (6) Pt.—YOU KNOW, THEY KNOW ME. In making this response, the model must expect from the interviewer a number of typical questions of the wh-type as well as rejoinder statements. The use of  they by the interviewer  in  his response to the model's output is assumed to be an anaphoric reference to the they PARRY is talking about. Although it is likely the interviewer will react to the model's output of (6), the algorithm must be prepared for the possibility that he will change the topic. Hence if the interviewer at this point asks some non-sequitur question such as: (7) Dr.—HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN HOSPITAL? the program recognizes that no reference to the delusional topic has been made and answers the question just as though it had been asked in any other context. This ability to deal with input in a flexible manner is important because of the many contingencies that can occur in psychiatric dialogues. If the topic is changed abruptly in this way by an interviewer, the algorithm remembers that it has output its  first  delusional statement of (6).  When the interviewer makes another neutral delusional reference, the  The Central Processes of the Model 59 next line of the delusional story will be output, e.g., 8 Pt.—THE MAFIA REALLY KNOW ABOUT ME. The ability to answer typical wh- and how questions depends on how much conceptual information is contained in the delusional belief being addressed. For example, suppose PARRY replied as in (6): (6) Pt.—YOU KNOW, THEY KNOW ME. and the interviewer then asked: (9) Dr.—WHERE DO THEY KNOW ABOUT YOU? If the expectancy-anaphoras contain no where, then a question about location cannot be answered. In this default situation, the algorithm recognizes the anaphoric they, know and you. Hence it knows at least that the topic has not been changed so it outputs the next statement in the delusional story: (9) pt.—THEY KNOW WHO I AM. and again anticipates questions and rejoinders pertaining to this statement. In constructing the data-base of beliefs, we tried to pack as much information in each belief as any reasonable (like ourselves) interviewer might request. However, one cannot anticipate everything and when some unanticipated information is requested, another relevant reply must be substituted. This heuristic may seem less than perfect but there is little else to do when the model simply lacks the pertinent information. By the way, humans do this also. When the interviewer shows interest in the delusional story, PARRY continues to output assertions appropriate to the dialogue. However, when the interviewer expresses doubt or disbelief about the delusions, ANGER and FEAR increase and the interviewer becomes questioned as in: 10)  Pt.—YOU DON T BELIEVE  ME,  DO YOU? Such an output expression attempts to prompt the dialogue toward the relation between the interviewer and the model, which will be described later (see p. 65). If no delusional reference at all is detected by this procedure, the algorithm attempts the next function that searches for certain types of references to the  self (See Fig. 5.7.)  60 Artificial Paranoia Self References Since  the  main concern  of a  psychiatric interview consists  of the beliefs, feelings, states,  and  actions  of  the patient,  the  model must  be  able to answer  a  large number  of  questions about  its Self. If  the  input  is  recognized  as a  question  and no  topic  is  currently under discussion  and the  question refers  to the Self, then  it is  assumed temporarily that  it  will refer only  to a  main self-topic. These main  or introductory self-topics (age, sex, marriage, health, family, occupation, hospital stay, etc.)  in  turn have subtopics  to  varying depths.  For  example, suppose  the  interviewer asks: (11) Dr.—HOW  DO YOU  LIKE  THE  HOSPITAL? Since hospital is a  main introductory topic with several levels  of subtopics,  the  algorithm answers  the  question with: 12 Pt.—I  SHOULDN T HAVE COME HERE. and then anticipates  a  variety  of  likely questions such  as  What brought you  to the  hospital? ,  How  long have  you  been  in the  hospital? ,  How do  you get  along with  the  other patients? ,  etc.  Each  of  these questions brings  up  further topics, some  of  which represent  a  continuation  of the main topic hospital, but  others  of  which represent  a  shift  to  another main introductory topic,  e.g.,  other patients. Since many  of the  inputs of  the  interviewer consist  of  ellipses  or  fragments,  the  algorithm assumes them  to  refer  to the  topic  or  subtopic under discussion.  If  some topic  is being discussed,  the  algorithm checks first  for a  new main topic, then  for a follow-up  to the  last subtopic, then (unless  the  subtopic  is  itself  a  main topic,  as for  example other patients in the  above)  for a  follow-up  to the last main topic. Thus continuity  and  coherence  in the  dialogue  are maintained. If some meaning cannot  be  extracted from  the  question  but it is recognized  at  least that  a  question  is  being asked,  a  procedure  is  called that attempts  to  handle certain common miscellaneous questions that  are difficult  to  categorize. These include  the  space-time orientation questions ( What  day is  this? )  and  everyday information  ( Who is  president? ) asked  by  psychiatrists  in a  mental-status examination  to  test  a  patient's awareness  and  orientation. Some quantitative  how questions  ( how many, how  often, how  long )  are  recognized here. Since  any adjective  or  adverb  can  follow  a  how, one of the  limitations  of the model  is its  inability  to  handle  all of  them satisfactorily because  the
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