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  Vulnerability and Global Change  Vulnerability  Defencelessness, insecurity ( internal vulnerability ); exposure to risk, shock ( external vulnerability ) (Chambers, 1989).  The characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from impacts of a hazard (Blaikie et al  ).  Production, consumption, assets and claims (entitlement theory) (Swift, 1989).  Vulnerability is multi-layered and multidimensional social space defined by the determinate political, economic and institutional capabilities of people in specific places at specific times (Watts and Bohle, 1993).  Vulnerability and capacity/resilience: protection of one’s livelihood (Anderson and Woodrow, 1989).   New Research Issues (National Academy of Sciences, 1999)  Understanding sensitivity and vulnerability to environmental variations and changes.  Human consequences of environmental change depend on the sensitivity and vulnerability of social systems and on their ability to adapt to environmental change.  Theories Underpinning Vulnerability Research

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Sep 10, 2019
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