Documents

139504356-Coagulation-Flocculation-Jar-Test-of-Water-ASTM-D2035.pdf

Description
Description:
Categories
Published
of 4
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  a Designation:D2 35 8   7 INT RN TION L StandardPracticeforCoagulation FlocculationJarTestofWater   ThisstandardisissuedunderthefixeddesignationD2035;thenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyear of originaladoptionor,inthecase of revision,theyear of lastrevision.Anumberinparenthesesindicatestheyear of lastreapproval.Asuperscriptepsilon  B indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapproval.  Scope   Thispracticecoversageneralprocedure for theevaluation of atreatment to reducedissolved,suspended,colloidal,andnonsettleablematterfromwaterbychemicalcoagulationflocculation,followedbygravitysettling.Theproceduremaybeusedtoevaluatecolor,turbidity,andhardnessreduction.1.2Thepracticeprovidesasystematicevaluation of thevariablesnormallyencountered in thecoagulation-flocculationprocess. 1.3 Thisstandarddoesnotpurport to addressthesafetyconcerns any, associatedwithitsuse.Itistheresponsibility of theuser of thisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicability of regulatorylimitationspriortouse. 2 ReferencedDocuments 2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 D1129TerminologyRelatingtoWaterD1193SpecificationforReagentWaterD1293TestMethodsforpH of WaterD3370PracticesforSamplingWaterfromClosedConduitsD6855TestMethod for Determination of TurbidityBelow5NTU in StaticModeD7315TestMethod for Determination of TurbidityAbove1TurbidityUnit TU) in StaticMode lTbis practiceisunderthejurisdiction of ASTMCommittee DI9 onWaterandisthedirectresponsibility of Subcommittee DI9 03 onSamplingWaterandWater-FormedDeposits,Analysis of WaterforPowerGenerationandProcessUse,On-LineWaterAnalysis,andSurveillance of Water.CurrenteditionapprovedMay I 2008.PublishedMay2008.Originallyapprovedin1964.Lastpreviouseditionapprovedin2003asD2035-80 2003). 2 For referenced ASTM standards,visitthe ASTM website,www.astm.org,orcontact ASTM CustomerServiceatservice@astm.org. For AnnualBook of ASTM Standards volumeinformation,refertothestandard sDocumentSummarypageonthe ASTM website. 3 Terminology 3.1 Definitions For definitions of termsused in thispractice,refertoTerminologyD1129. 4 Summary   Practice 4 Thecoagulation-flocculationtestiscarriedout to determinethechemicals,dosages,andconditionsrequired to achieveoptimumresults.Theprimaryvariables to beinvestigatedusingtherecommendedpracticeinclude,butarenotlimitedto:4.1.1Chemicaladditives,4.1.2pH,4.1.3Temperature,and4.1.4Order of additionandmixingconditions. 5 SignificanceandUse 5 Thispracticepermitstheevaluation of variouscoagulantsandcoagulantaidsused in thetreatment of waterandwastewaterforthesamewaterandthesameexperimentalconditions.5.2Theeffectsofconcentrationofthecoagulantsandcoagulantaidsandtheirorderofadditioncanalsobeevaluatedbythispractice. 6 Interferences 6 Therearesomepossibleinterferencesthatmaymakethedeterminationofoptimumjartestconditionsdifficult.Theseincludethefollowing: 6.1.1TemperatureChange During Test Thermal or convectioncurrentsmayoccur,interferingwiththesettling of coagulatedparticles.Thiscanbepreventedbytemperaturecontrol. 6.1.2GasRelease DuringTest}-Flotation of coagulatedflocmayoccurduetogasbubbleformationcausedbymechanicalagitator,temperatureincreaseorchemicalreaction. Copyright © ST International 100BarrHarborDrive POBox ClOO WestConshohocken 19428 2959 UnitedStates. LicensedtoWendellSawyer.ANSIorderX_103007.Downloaded1/20/20095:28PM.Singleuserlicenseonly.Copyingandnetworkingprohibited.  314 314 WOOD SCREW   D2035 08   ORE  ~ ~  I .. A  1 A - - ..I A =   Distancebetween Jars in multiplestirrerapparatus {6 for aPhipps Bird} TUBES I x 7 50ml Color ComparatorType RACK  Oak 3 4 x 1 5/8 FIG.1ReagentRackforMultipleStirrerJarTestApparatus I  2   ~ 1ã 1 50ml ~lU ESc 51/2 I I , I I I , 1   I :: 1 , I 0\. L J   ,  0   I e , ° I L .J J L .J L .J ...J l. L   6.1.3Testing-Period-Biological actIvityorotherfactorsmayalterthecoagulationcharacteristics of wateruponprolongedstanding.Forthisreasontheperiodbetweensamplingandtestingshouldbekept to aminimum,withthetimebeingrecorded. 7 Apparatus 7 Multiple Stirrer multipositionstirrerwithcontinuousspeedvariationfromabout20 to 150rpmshouldbeused.Thestirringpaddlesshouldbe of lightgagecorrosion-resistantmaterialall of thesameconfigurationandsize.Anilluminatedbaseisuseful to observetheflocformation.Precautionarymeasuresshouldbetaken to avoidheatbeingimpartedbytheilluminationsystemwhichmaycounteractnormalsettling. 7 2 Jars orBeakers , allofthesamesizeandshape;1500-mLGriffinbeakersmaybeused(1000-mLrecommendedminimumsize). 7 3 Reagent Racks means of introducingeachtestsolution to alljarssimultaneously.Thereshouldbeatleastonerackforeachtestsolutionorsuspension.Theracksshouldbesimilar to thatshown in Fig. 1 8 Reagents 8 Purity of Reagents-Reagent gradechemicalsshallbeusedinalltests.Unlessotherwiseindicated,it is intendedthatallreagentsshallconform to thespecifications of theCommitteeonAnalyticalReagents of theAmericanChemicalSociety,wheresuchspecificationsareavailable. 3 Othergradesmaybeused,provideditisfirstascertainedthatthereagentis of 3 ReagentChemicals,AmericanChemicalSocietySpecifications , AmericanChernicalSociety,Washington,DC. For suggestions onthe testing of reagentsnotlistedbytheAmericanChemicalSociety,see AnalarStandards for LaboratoryChemicals,  H Ltd.,Poole,Dorset,U.K.,andthe UnitedStatesPhannacopeiaandNationalFonnulary, U.S.PhannacopeialConvention,Inc.(USPC),Rockville, MD. sufficientlyhighpurity to permititsusewithoutlesseningtheaccuracy of thedetermination, 8 2 Purity of Water-Unless otherwiseindicated,reference to waterforreagentpreparationshallbeunderstood to meanwaterthatmeetsthequantitativequalityspecificationsforTypeIVreagentwaterconforming to SpecificationD1193,Section 1 1 8.3Thefollowingchemicalsandadditivesaretypical of thoseusedfortestsolutionsandsuspensions.Thelatter,withtheexception of coagulantaids,maybeprepareddailybymixingchemicalswithwater to aconcentration of 10 (:to. 1 gIL(1.0mL of testsolutionorsuspensionwhenadded to 1Lofsampleisequivalentto10mgIL): PrimeCoagulantsAlum[AI 2( S 04h·18H 2 0j Ferricsulfate[Fe2(S04h·xH20jFerricchloride(FeCI 3 ·6H2 0 Ferroussuijate  FeS0 4·7H2 0 Magnesiumcarbonate  MgC0 3 ·3H2 0 Sodiumaluminate(NaAI02)CoagulantAidsActivatedsilicaAnionic(polyelectrolyte)Cationic(polyelectrolyte)NonionicPolymerOxidizingAgentsChlorine  CI 2)Chlorinedioxide  CI0 2)Potassiumpermanganate  KMn0 4)Calcium hypo hlor~e [CaCI(CIO)·4H2 0j Sodium hypo hlor~e (NaCIO)AlkalisCalciumcarbonate  CaC0 3) Dolomiticlime(58   CaO,40   MgO)Lime,hydrated[Ca(OHh]Magnesiumoxide(MgO)Sodiumcarbonate(Na 2 C0 3) Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH)WeightingAgentsBentoniteKaolinOtherclaysandminerals 2 LicensedtoWendellSawyer.ANSIorderX_103007.Downloaded1/20/20095:28PM.Singleuserlicenseonly.Copyingandnetworkingprohibited.    D 2 35 8 MiscellaneousActivatedcarbon powdered)  A  oagulant Aids There arenumerouscommerciallyavailablecoagulantaidsorpolyelectrolytes.Allpolyelectrolytesareclassifiedanionic,cationicornonionic,dependingupontheircomposition.Theseaidsmayhavetheability to producelarge,tough,easily-settledflocwhenusedaloneorinconjunctionwithinorganiccoagulants.Asmalldosage(under1 mgIL maypermitareductioninthedosageof,orcompleteeliminationof,thecoagulant.Inthelattercase,thepolyelectrolytewould be consideredtheprimecoagulantratherthanacoagulantaid.Aidscomeinpowderedandliquidform.Powderedaidsshould be prepared as 0.1   solutionswithappropriatealiquotstoprovideproperdosage.Alwaysaddpowderedaids to thedissolvingwaterratherthanthereverse,andaddslowlytotheshoulder of avortexcreatedbystirring. If avortexisnotformed,thedrypowderwillmerelycollectonthesurfaceofthewateringummymassesandbecomeverydifficult to dissolve.Dissolvingtimemayvaryfromseveralminutestoseveralhours.Suggestedmanufacturers proceduresforwetting,dissolving,andstoringshould be followedwhenavailable.Liquidformscan be readilyprepared to theabovestrengthwithoutdifficulty.4 9 Sampling 9.1 CollectthewatersampleundertestinaccordancewiththeapplicablePracticesD3370. 1 Procedure 10.1Measureequalvolumes(1000mL) of sampleintoeach of thejarsor1500-mLGriffinbeakers.Asmanysampleportionsmay be usedastherearepositionsonthemultiplestirrer.Locatebeakerssothatthepaddlesareoff-center,butclearthebeakerwallbyabout  A mm  V4 in.).Recordthesampletemperatureatthestart of thetest.10.2Loadthetestchemicalsinthereagentracks.Useonerackforeachseries of chemicaladditions.Makeupeachtubeintheracktoafinalvolume of 10mL,withwater,beforeusing.Theremay be asituationwherealargervolume of reagentwillberequired.Shouldthisconditionprevail,fillalltubeswithwatertoavolumeequaltothelargestvolume of reagentinthereagentrack.Whenaddingslurries,itmaybenecessarytoshaketheracktoproduceaswirlingmotionjustprior to transfer. 4 Aperiodicallyupdated ReportonCoagulantAidsforWaterTreatment ispublished by theEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyOffice of WaterSupply,Cincinnati,Ohio45268,listingcoagulantaids thatmay beusedinwatertreatmentwithoutadversephysiologicaleffectsonthoseusingthewater,basedoninformationsubmitted by themanufacturersordistributors,orboth. 3 10.3Startthemultiplestirreroperatingatthe flashmix speedofapproximately120rpm.Addthetestsolutionorsuspensions,atpredetermineddosagelevelsandsequence.Flashmixforapproximately1minaftertheadditions of chemicals.Recordtheflashmixtimeandspeed(rpm).lOAReducethespeed as necessarytotheminimumrequired to keepflocparticlesuniformlysuspendedthroughoutthe slowmix period.Slowmixfor20min.Recordthetimeforthefirstvisibleflocformation.Every5min(duringtheslowmixperiod),recordrelativeflocsizeandmixerspeed(rpm). If coagulantaidsareused,mixingspeediscriticalbecauseexcessivestirringtends to breakupearlyflocformationandmayredispersetheaid.10.5Aftertheslowmixperiod,withdrawthepaddlesandobservesettling of flocparticles.Recordthetimerequiredforthebulk of theparticlestosettle.Inmostcasesthistimewillbethatrequiredfortheparticles to settletothebottomofthebeaker;however,insomecasestheremay be interferingconvectioncurrents. If so,therecordedsettlingtimeshould be thatatwhichtheunsettledorresidualparticlesappear to be movingequallyupwardanddownward.10.6After15min of settling,recordtheappearance of floc on thebeakerbottom.Recordthesampletemperature.Bymeansofapipetorsiphon,withdraw an adequatesamplevolume of supernatantliquorfromthejaratapointonehalf of thedepth of thesample,toconductcolor,5turbidity, pH andotherrequiredanalyses,(Note 1 determinedinaccordancewithTestMethodsD6855orD7315(forturbidity)andD1293(forpH).Asuggestedformforrecordingresultsisappended(seeFig.2). NOTE I Tests forresidualchemicalsshouldbeincluded,forexample,alum;residual A1 z0 3; copperas;residualFe Z 0 3; etc. 10.7Repeatsteps10.1-10.6untilallpertinentvariableshavebeenevaluated.10.8Thetimesgivenin10.3, lOA and10.6areonlysuggestions.   Reproducibility 11.1   isrecognizedthatreproducibilityofresultsisimportant. To demonstratereproducibility,theso-called3and3procedureissuggested.Inthisprocedure,duplicatesetsof3jarseacharetreatedsimultaneouslywiththesamechemicaldosagesinjars1and4,2and5,and3and 6. 12 Keywords 12.1coagulation;flocculation;jartests 5 For thecolordetermination,referenceismadeto StandardMethodsfortheExamination of WaterandWasteWater Fourteenthedition,AmericanPublicHealthAssociation,Inc.,NewYork, NY, 1975,pp. 64 71 LicensedtoWendellSawyer.ANSIorderX_103007.Downloaded1/20/20095:28PM.Singleuserlicenseonly.Copyingandnetworkingprohibited.   2 35 8 J R NUM ER I 2  56 Chemicals mg litre  g FlashMixSoeedromFlash Mix Time minSlow Mix Speed rpm Slow MixTime minTemperature OF TimeFirstFloc min Size FlocSettlingrateTurbidityColor pH SOOlple pH Turbidity  ote _LocationColor TemperatureSample Size ml  g Indicateorder of additionofchemicals FIG 2  ar TestData ASTM Internationaltakes no positionrespectingthevalidity of anypatent rights asserted inconnectionwith any item mentioned inthisstandard.Users of thisstandardareexpressly advised thatdetermination of thevalidity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely theirown responsibility.This standard issUbjecttorevision atany time by theresponsibletechnicalcommittee andmust be reviewed every fiveyears and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.Yourcomments are invited eitherfor revision of this standard or for additionalstandards and shOUld be addressedto ASTM InternationalHeadquarters.Yourcommentswillreceivecarefulconsideration at a meeting of theresponsibletechnicalcommittee,which youmay attend. If you feelthat your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your viewsknowntothe ASTM Committee on Standards, at theaddressshownbelow.This standard iscopyrighted byASTM International,100 BarrHarbor Drive, PO BoxC700,WestConshohocken,   19428-2959,UnitedStates.Individualreprints single or multiplecopies of thisstandard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at theabove address orat 610-832-9585  phone , 610-832-9555  fax , or service@astm.org  e-mail ; or throughthe ASTM website www.astm.org .   LicensedtoWendellSawyer ANSIorderX_103007 Downloaded 1/20/20095:28 PM Singleuserlicenseonly Copyingandnetworkingprohibited

HHHH

Sep 10, 2019
Search
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x