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14ESSJan-18-5988.pdf

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    International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS)  Available online at: http://euroasiapub.org Vol. 8 Issue 1, January- 2018 ISSN(o): 2249-7382 | Impact Factor: 6.939 | International Journal of Research in Economics & Social Sciences  Email:- editorijrim@gmail.com, http://www.euroasiapub.org (An open access scholarly, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, monthly, and fully refereed journal.) 150 CHILD TRAFFICKING IN BANGLADESH Md. Mahbub Rahman Lecturer (Sociology) Department of Arts & Sciences Bangladesh Army University of Science and Technology Saidpur Cantonment, Saidpur-5310, Nilphamari, Bangladesh Email id – snigdho.mahbub@yahoo.com  Abstract Child trafficking in Bangladesh is believed to be extensive both within the country and to India, Pakistan and the Middle East. Many girls are trafficked into sexual exploitation or bonded servitude. This study demonstrates as a whole the Child Trafficking phenomena. This paper tries to study    present scenario of child trafficking in Bangladesh, causes, routes  ,  consequences  and the problem of trafficking of children with special reference to Bangladesh. In the process, different dimensions of the problem have been looked into. At the same time, various efforts taken by the Government, international agencies, and NGOs to combat the menace were also reviewed. This paper is basically a combination of secondary data. Most of the child have been found trafficked  for sexual exploitation. The crime of trafficking is mainly committed against persons who are socially and economically vulnerable. Economic under development generates huge exodus of men and women to affluent countries. As far as trafficking in women and children is concerned, it necessarily involves a gender dimension and a negative consequence on the rights of women and children as almost all the women/girl child victims are trafficked for the immoral purposes of flesh trade or child-victims are sold as suppliers of human organs. Trafficking is a dynamic concept, the parameters of which are constantly changing to respond to changing economic, social, and political conditions. Regarding the child trafficking issue GOs & NGOs give more importance on Preventive measures rather than Protective measure. However GOs & NGOs plays a vital role regarding this issue. Keywords:   Bangladesh, Causes, Child trafficking, Present scenario, Routes.  International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS)  Vol. 8 Issue 1, January- 2018 ISSN(o): 2249-7382 | Impact Factor : 6.939 International Journal of Research in Economics & Social Sciences  Email:- editorijrim@gmail.com, http://www.euroasiapub.org (An open access scholarly, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, monthly, and fully refereed journal.) 151 Introduction: The issue of trafficking of children has been a major concern, both in national and international contexts. The nature and extent of the problems and crimes associated with it are most sensitive and transnational making the issue complicated one. At the same time, efforts have been made to develop a consensus on a working definition of trafficking and on the characteristics of trafficking since the tern is somewhat amigos. Moreover, the crime is highly organized and constantly taking new forms. Children representatives in international fora and policy making institution have raised concern that trafficking needs to be understood not merely as an act of criminality but as outcome of complex social and economic features of the development process. Being the citizen of South Asian country and almost surrounded by an open border with India, children of Bangladesh constantly have been victims of trafficking. Nowadays, trafficking is an easy way of making money. A group of heinous criminals have adopted it as a profession. They allure the victims' parents and guardians to voluntarily put them in (the victims) their hands. Sometimes they kidnap individuals to traffic them outside the country. In the name of providing employment they entice innocent people into their trap. They are brought over to Dhaka and forced into antisocial activities. Good-looking women are being trafficked abroad. Although Dhaka is their hub of activity they have networks across the country. It is true that trafficking could not be combat as effectively as desired. Bangladesh is called a source country, because men, women and children from poorer and vulnerable families are collected for trafficking and sent to India, Pakistan, UAE, Europe, America etc. The persons involved in trafficking include village brokers, travel agents and groups of criminal persons, but they are part of an international syndicate and mafia, which may srcinate in many developed countries including Europe and America. Within the country, they are the agents of traffickers. This is a multi-billion dollar trade in the world.   Encouragingly, alarming increase of trafficking in children to India, Pakistan and the middle East countries for labor sex and other forms of exploitation including sale of organs has led the government of Bangladesh as well as various non-governmental organization to take anti trafficking measures, including enactment of deterrent laws for criminalizing trafficking in children in all its forms, prosecuting the trafficker including intermediaries, along with protection and support for rehabilitation and family rein reintegration of the victims, enhancement of community awareness etc. Along with these activities various types of training programs are being organized for activities, social workers and the members of the law enforcement agencies.  International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS)  Vol. 8 Issue 1, January- 2018 ISSN(o): 2249-7382 | Impact Factor : 6.939 International Journal of Research in Economics & Social Sciences  Email:- editorijrim@gmail.com, http://www.euroasiapub.org (An open access scholarly, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, monthly, and fully refereed journal.) 152 Research objectives: 1.   To know the present scenario of child trafficking in Bangladesh; 2.   To know the causes of child trafficking; 3.   To know the routes of child trafficking; 4.   Find out the roles of GOs & NGOs towards combating child trafficking. Methods & Materials: The study has been based on secondary sources, which includes recent publications, journals, books, research reports, website resources and other UN reports. Child Trafficking Scenario in Bangladesh: Bangladesh, a small developing country of South Asia, contains the seventh largest population in the world. Limited natural resources, underdeveloped industrialization along with natural disasters such as floods, droughts and cyclones cursed the population mobility and human trafficking is one of the inadvertent consequences thereof. However, trafficking is getting in an acute condition in Bangladesh. Although exact figures on   the scope of the problem vary widely, the consensus is that the trafficking problem is growing rapidly. Though the history of women and child trafficking from Bangladesh goes back to the early 50's when camel race and 'jockey' gained momentum in the Middle East countries, in the course of time, this criminal business has taken an alarming proportion, women and children are being trafficked out of Bangladesh to various countries predominantly in   India, Pakistan and the Middle Eastern countries. There is no reliable data concerning women and children who have been trafficked from Bangladesh to other countries. Estimates regarding the number of women and children being trafficked are not only difficult to collect, but also different sources cite wildly different figures. The main targets of agents and traffickers are the underprivileged and discriminated women and children (especially female children) in Bangladesh. Every year approximately 4,500 women and children are trafficked outside Bangladesh and in the last decade approximately 2, 00,000 women have been victims of trans-border trafficking (Ali, ed., 2001: 35). According to a report of Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association (BNWLA) 95 male, 149 female and 393 undefined (male/female) were trafficked from Bangladesh in 2000 (Ibid:36). A total of 461 male, 408 women (and children) and 296 undefined (male/female) were reportedly trafficked from Bangladesh during 2001 (Ali, ed., 2002:45). In the year 2002, a total of 335 women and children were reportedly trafficked of which the majorities were between the ages of 13 and 18 (Ali, ed., 2003: 25). According to the Bangladesh Police record, in the last seven years (from 1997-2003), a total of 379 cases were filed relating to the trafficking and in those cases, the number of child  International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS)  Vol. 8 Issue 1, January- 2018 ISSN(o): 2249-7382 | Impact Factor : 6.939 International Journal of Research in Economics & Social Sciences  Email:- editorijrim@gmail.com, http://www.euroasiapub.org (An open access scholarly, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, monthly, and fully refereed journal.) 153 victims were 541 where most of them were female child. If we consider the reported cases of nine leading newspapers of 2003 it will be open to us that in 2003, as many as 329 trafficking cases and 53 abduction cases were reported where 95 and 310 Cases were filed respectively in the police station. From the following statistics, it is a matter of great concern that the children up to 18 years were the main targets of the traffickers (Ali, ed., 2004: 36). During 2005 and 2006, BNWLA repatriated a total of 378 transnational trafficking survivors from different states of South Asian countries of them 144 were female and 234 were male survivors. Moreover, during the same period BNWLA rescued/released as many as 87 internal trafficking survivors from different confinements with the help of law enforcing agencies where 54 persons were female and rest of 33 persons were male (Ali, ed., 2007: 18). However, BNWLA and its reliable sources apprehended that the actual number of women and children trafficked to neighboring countries and other destinations were much higher that it was reported. )n most of BNWLAs findings, it is revealed that approximately 7,000 women and children become victims of trafficking every year in Bangladesh (Ali, ed., 2002: 44). So, in fine it can be stated that female rather than male children are being trafficked massively from Bangladesh it is dominant in the present day social context in the world (Hoque, ed., 2010: 48). A 2006 study on the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) found that nearly 27,000 Bangladeshi women and children have been forced into prostitution in India, and around 40,000 children from Bangladesh are involved in prostitution in Pakistan (UNICEF, 2007). According to the study, over 1 million women and children were trafficked out of the country in last 30 years and many of them were forced to become prostitutes, domestic helps, camel jockeys and beggars. A UNICEF report says that approximately 400 women and children in Bangladesh are victims of trafficking each month. Another study reports 300,000 Bangladeshi children and women have been trafficked to India alone in the last 10 years (UNICEF, 2009).The annual report of an organization based in Pakistan called Lawyers for Human Rights and Legal Aid reveals that nearly 200,000 Bangladeshi girls and women were sold in Pak  istan 9. )n a report of )ndias Kerala State Police stated, Bangladeshi adolescent girls are collected by Indian trafficking networks from many rural districts, in exchange of Tk , to Tk , to the procurer. These ill -fated adolescent girls are then taken to India and sold off to different brothels and residential hotels, where they are forced into prostitution. Good-Looking adolescent girls and women are trafficked to Pakistan or the Middle East. It is believed that about 4,500 women and children from Bangladesh are trafficked to Pakistan annually. On the other hand, Bangladesh boys in the ages between 4-12 years are trafficked for camel racing in the Gulf; sexual exploitation of these boys by the employers in not uncommon (UNIFEM, 2009).  International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS)  Vol. 8 Issue 1, January- 2018 ISSN(o): 2249-7382 | Impact Factor : 6.939 International Journal of Research in Economics & Social Sciences  Email:- editorijrim@gmail.com, http://www.euroasiapub.org (An open access scholarly, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, monthly, and fully refereed journal.) 154 Causes of Child  Trafficking: Child  trafficking is not an automated phenomenon; instead it is a response to a wide range of driving forces. The socio-economic edifice of Bangladesh, like any other country, has colligated this cursed practice as a new form of slave trade intended primarily for sex industry or forced labor. Some of the issues that impel child trafficking are discussed below in brief.  Push and pull factor in child trafficking: Child  trafficking is an actual term is a response to a combination some push and some pull factors. While push factors force the victims to walk on the street of vulnerabilities to   trafficking and create trafficking like environment, pull factors usually offer false promises and illusions leading to the exploitative condition at the end. On the micro level, urge to escape economic hardship and abusive home environment, gender discrimination and social exclusion, dysfunctional family or stepparents, social acceptance of child labor and early marriages, and so on push people to be trafficked either willingly or forcibly. On the other hand, fake promises of jobs or marriage by the traffickers, illusion of a better life in the cities and   safe work and Illusion of escaping abuses away from home serve as pull factors attracting victims into modern slavery. Pull factors encourage young people or those already living in dangerous circumstances to seek out more glamorous or sustaining life options than they feel are available in their   own communities. Macro-factors such as the impacts of globalization, employment, trade and migration policies and conflicts and environmental disasters, rise of sex industry and sex tourism, demands for exploitable labor in harsh and criminal working sectors and development induced risks can put into motion to the circumstances that increase   vulnerabilities. Figure 1 : Push-pull factor in Child Trafficking
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