2014 JRC Geothermal Energy Status Report

2014 JRC Geothermal Energy Status Report
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  2014 JRC Geothermal Energy Status Report  Technology, market and economic aspects of geothermal energy in Europe Bergur SigfússonAndreas Uihlein 2015 Report EUR 26985 EN  EUROPEAN COMMISSION Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport  Contact information Andreas UihleinAddress: Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten, The NetherlandsE-mail: andreas.uihlein@ec.europa.euTel.: +31 224 56 5123https://ec.europa.eu/jrc LEGAL NOTICE This publication is a Science and Policy Report by the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission’s in-house science service. It aims to provide evidence-based scientific support to the European policy-making process. The scientific output expressed does not imply a policy position of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.All images © European Union 2015, except: cover picture top right: Hickory Construction, bottom centre: Rannveig Sigfúsdóttir, bottom right: Gretar Ívarsson JRC93338EUR 26985 ENISBN 978-92-79-44614-6ISSN 1831-9424doi:10.2790/460251Luxembourg: Publications Offi ce of the European Union, 2015© European Union, 2015Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Abstract Geothermal energy resources have been used by mankind in some form for thousands of years. Depending on the temperature of the resource, it may be used for power production, supply of heat or a combination of both. This report presents the current status of the major technologies to utilize the full temperature range of geothermal resources ranging from shallow and borehole ground source heat pump systems, direct use facilities to power plants deriving their fluids from volcanic systems. Power production from hydrothermal resources where natural permeability coincides with hot bedrocks is a mature technology. Power and heat production from engineered geothermal systems where permeability has to be artificially created is less mature and needs further development and support for large scale implementation. Currently, geothermal provides 0.2 % of EU final electricity demand. Although the EU theoretical power production potential with the EGS technology is very high, public support for geothermal is limited compared to other renewable technologies. In order to expand the potential for geothermal power production, focus should be made on facilitating the deployment of the EGS technology. The understanding of successful long term EGS reservoir management has to be elevated and cheaper and more reliable drilling technologies should be developed.  2014 JRC Geothermal Energy Status Report  Joint Research CentreInstitute for Energy and Transport Bergur SigfússonAndreas Uihlein 2015  3   TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 9EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 101 INTRODUCTION 122 TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT 142.1 Current geothermal energy state-of-the-art 152.1.1 Power plant design 152.1.2 Drilling methods 172.1.3 Drilling technologies (drilling and design) 192.1.4 Heat exchanger design 202.1.5 Emission abatement systems 212.1.6 Engineered Geothermal Systems 232.1.7 Re-injection 232.1.8 Direct use 242.1.9 Ground source heat pumps 252.1.10 Materials in the geothermal sector 262.2 Current challenges and possible bottlenecks 282.2.1 Estimate of resource potential 282.2.2 Drilling risks and costs 282.2.3 Stimulation 283 EU AND MEMBER STATE POLICIES RELATED TO GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 293.1 National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) 293.2 EU and Member State policies and financing 313.2.1 Research, development and deployment 323.2.2 NER 300 programme 323.2.3 Risk insurance funds 323.2.4 Feed-in-tariffs 323.2.5 Feed-in-premiums 323.2.6 Tradable Green Certificates 333.2.7 Tendering 333.2.8 So loans 334 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY MARKET STATUS 344.1 Global market status 344.1.1 Power generation 344.1.2 Direct use 354.1.3 Ground source heat pumps 364.2 Europe 364.2.1 Power generation 364.2.2 Direct use 374.2.3 Ground source heat pumps 374.3 Asia 384.4 America 394.4.1 United States 394.4.2 Mexico 394.4.3 Canada 394.5 Rest of the world 404.5.1 Oceania 404.5.2 Africa 40
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