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  Wilfredo T. Panang MPA-1 Research Phenomenon Conflict Research Articles Brinson, J. A., Kottler, J. A., & Fisher, T. A. (2004). “ Cross -Cultural Conflict Resoution in the Schools: Some Practical Intervention Strategies for Counselors.”  Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, (82) 3. O’hara, E. (2009). “ Group - Conflict Resolution: Sources of Resistance to Reconciliation.” Law and Contemporary Problems, (72) 2. Shelton, C. D. & Darling, J.R. (2004). “ From Chaos to Order: Explorin g New Frontiers in Conflict Management.” Organization Development Journal, (22) 3.  Research Topic Influence of Misunderstanding in the Workplace to Employees Accomplishments Introduction Conflict is difficult to define, because it occurs in many different settings. The essence of conflict seems to be disagreement, contradiction, or incompatibility. Thus, CONFLICT refers to any situation in which there are incompatible Goals, Cognitions, or Emotions within or between individuals or groups that lead to opposition or antagonistic interaction. The definition recognizes three basic types of conflict: Goal conflict is situation in which desired end states or preferred outcomes appear to be incompatible. Cognitive Conflict is a situation in which ideas or thoughts are inconsistent. Affective Conflict is a situation in which feelings or emotions are incompatible; that is, people literally become angry with one another. Conflict is very common in organizational settings. This is not necessarily a negative feature; the resolution of conflict often leads to constructive problem solving. Conflict exists in many forms other than the form that can result from competition, and managers should understand the different ways of conflict resolution. Thus examines conflict from a variety of view points. It first considers the positive and negative aspects of conflict. Next, it discusses the levels of conflict that can occur within organizations. Finally, it identifies some of the basic strategies for managing conflict. The five levels of conflict are intrapersonal (within an individual), interpersonal (between individuals), intragroup (within a group), intergroup (between groups), and intraorganizational (within organizations). The workplace comprises people who hail from different cultures, hence intercultural differences. Cultural differences are a major cause of conflict in the workplace. Culture encompasses language, modes of dressing, and differences in nationality, race and ethnicity. It also arises from divisions in the society along the lines of socioeconomic class, ability and disability, gender, and political and religious inclinations, among others. Culture defines the natural way of life of people (Trompenaars, 2008). It is therefore necessary for both employers and employees in an organization to appreciate the dynamic aspect of culture and that it is unavoidable. Differences in culture are usually intertwined with conflict, many a times at the workplace, because culture influences human relationship. It is inevitable to deal with cultural conflicts at the workplace because there are people from different backgrounds who make up the employees, employers, customers, suppliers and stakeholders, and they all play important roles in every organization. Lastly, conflict in the workplace happens. If there’s no conflict, employees are hiding t heir real thoughts and feelings and neglected conflict leads to absenteeism and sickness. Should it need to be avoided or even lessen.  Abegail Q. Panang MPA-1 Research Phenomenon Leadership and Management Research Articles Gubman, E. (2010, December). “ Leadership and Gratitude”. People and Strategy, (33 )4. Kenward, M. (2005). “ How to Grow Leaders, The Seven Principles of Effective Leadership Development”. Teaching Business and Economics, (9) 3. Salonen, E. M. (2005, March) . “ Management of Leadership”. Information Outlook, (9) 3.  Research Topic Impact of Incentives on Performance of the Employees Introduction An incentive is a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something. You want to manage your incentives in such a way that you do not create entitled employees. You also do not want to demotivate employees. Employee incentives can play a significant role in retaining the employees you most want to keep. They also play a huge role in attracting employees to join your organization. Employers use incentives to promote a particular behavior or performance that they believe is necessary for the organization’ s success. For example, a software company provides employee lunches on Fridays to promote teamwork across departments and functional areas.   The lunches are also an excellent opportunity to brief employees on company progress outside of their assigned areas. They also use the lunches to provide necessary information to employees or for employees to present to their coworkers on hobbies and interests — all of which contribute to staff members knowing each other better. Incentives can be tricky for employers. Depending on what is incentivized, employers can encourage teamwork and cooperation or damage it. If you provide an individual sales incentive for sales staff, for example, you guarantee that your sales force will not work together to make sales. Alternatively, provide a team incentive and employees will follow up each other’s leads, share best methods, and  work as a team to make sales. Traditionally, manufacturing companies incentivized productivity or achieving quantity targets. They found that unless they added the quality back into the equation, they were delivering shoddy, poor quality parts — although lots of them were delivered. When you design an incentive program, make sure you are rewarding the actual behaviors that you wish to incentivize. It is so easy to emphasize the wrong behaviors — often unwittingly. In addition to company programs or incentive processes, managers have the opportunity every day to provide incentives for employees. A simple thank you, even asking the employee how they spent their weekend to indicate care and interest, doesn't cost anything and goes a long way in helping employees experience positive workplace morale.Gifts that are provided for specific achievements such as releasing a product or making a large sale should be random and frequent. You want to create an environment in which employees feel that recognition and incentives are available for good work and that they are not a scarce resource. You also want to avoid doing the same thing every time because those incentives eventually become entitlements. Once they are entitlements, they lose their power to recognize employees or to communicate and reinforce the behaviors the employer wishes to encourage. Incentives can help employers reinforce with employees the kinds of actions and contributions that will help the organization succeed. Used effectively, incentives help build employee motivation and engagement. Employees want to be part of something that is bigger than themselves. Employers need to use more incentives to help build employee morale and to ensure that employees feel appreciated for their contributions. Distributed appropriately, in a transparent manner that employees understand, you can't go wrong with incentives to praise and thank employees for their performance and contributions. Incentives provide a powerful, affirming recognition. Do more of it to foster your organization's success.
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