Others

65079_1945-1949

Description
2 MONTHLY REVIEW A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e F i f t h F e d e r a l R e s e r v e D i s t r i c t 1 9 4 4 P r o d u c t i o n a n d 1 9 4 5 G o a l s The War Food Administration has set food goals for Recommendations for 1945 for hay, soybeans, and 1945 at levels approximately as high as actual farm out- tobacco were based on 1944 harvested acreage rather put in 1944, the year which set an alltime record in agri- than on pl
Categories
Published
of 3
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  2MONTHLY REVIEW  Agriculture in the Fifth Federal Reserve District1944 Production and 1945 Goals The War Food Administration has set food goals for Recommendations for 1945 for hay, soybeans, and1945 at levels approximately as high as actual farm out- tobacco were based on 1944 harvested acreage ratherput in 1944, the year which set an alltime record in agri- than on planted acreage as was the case with the ma-cultural production in the nation. The reasons for set- jority of the crops. However, at the time that theseting the goals to compare with the peak production of goals were arrived at, the annual estimates of harvestedlast year are as follows: acreage were not yet available, and July first data wereThe date of termination of hostilities is still indefinite, used. Much of the land that farmers expected to harvestIf is highly probable that victory over Germany will come in mid-1944 was not harvested, due either' to unfavor-by the close of the current calendar year. Whether or not able weather or to shortages of farm labor. The droughtthis happens, a high level of farm production will still that hit Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia in thebe necessary. When victory is achieved, the United early fall was an important factor in the abandonment of States will have to provide foodstuffs for the European 63,000 acres of a total of 173,000 acres of soybeans whichcountries during their period of reconstruction and re- farmers expected to harvest, according to mid-year in-habilitation, and will even have to supply Germany with tentions. The acreage of hay crops was also reducedfood until her farm land can once again be cultivated. In because of the drought. The corn crop of West Virginiaaddition, when Germany is defeated, many American and was severely damaged for the same reason.  Allied troops will be transferred to the Pacific theater, Corn and wheat goals for each state of the Districtnecessitating a continuing flow of supplies ; many will re- were set at almQSt the ise leyd of ^ m4  lanted mam m Europe to aid m rehabilitation, and these, too, wi acreage, which complied exactly with the 1944 goal in therequire maintenance of high farm production. The de- case 0£CQrnand exceedec[ ^ slightly in the case of wheat,mobilization of the remainder of the forces cannot take Soybeans, on the other hand, fell far short in 1944 of place over night, a fact which must also be taken into ^ gQaj 732  ,000   acres set; accordingly, the 1945 goalconsideration when food goals are established. has been lowered t0 398,000  acres, but this is still 25 perIf the war m Europe is not over by the end of t^is cent above acreage harvested in 1944. The soybeanyear the need for farm products will of course be mam- acreage harvested in m 4   fell far short of the recom_ lamed at present levels. In either case, the War Foo mendations for that year in every state of the District. Administration is of the opinion that it is preferable or North Carolina, the most important soybean state, har-the United States to risk the possibility of a surplus vested 196,000 acres in 1944, compared with the goal of rather than to be caught short-handed. 1- 400,000 acres; the 1945 goal is set at 12 per cent above Another reason for settmg goals close to 1944 levels of the actual harvestedacreage of 1944, but is onlv 55 per production is that yields have been exceptionally high cent 0f tJie 1944 goal. Virginia, the state second in im-both in 1943 and in 1944, due to good growing conditions, portance, was asked to harvest 250,000 acres of soybeansas well as to intensive cultivation. The same favorable jn ] 944 ^}mt latest data indicate an actual harvest of onlyconditions cannot be anticipated for 1945; therefore, if 63   000  acres The 1945  goal for that state> set Qn thehigh acreages are planted, even if the yield is closer to 5asis of july first indicatkms of harvested acreage, isaverage, production would probably still be high enough pIaced at 120,000  acres, close to twice the actual accom-to fill requirements. plishment in 1944. 1945 G oals  C ompared  W ith  1944 A  creages  . The peanut goal for 1945 was likewise lowered to bring T, , , 17  j a it i° line with actual 1944 accomplishment. The threeI? most cases, acreages set by the War Food Admims- _producing states of the /Hth Federal Reserve 1]Z a  ™  T°tr, District, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, ° ã+^Cr^'N^v, tt   1 e*p S° S n' t t- were asked to plant 628,000 acres to peanuts grown alonesons in the Fifth Federal Reserve District. for ^ ])Urpos‘; in 19H>   ^ misse(fthe req*ested acre. table l: 1945  acreage goals compared with 1944  acreage, age jg per cent. The 1945 goal for the three statesfifth federal reserve district was get 20  per cenj- lower than the WFA recommenda-Hsirvested ^c'of8tion for 1944. Virginia came closest to fulfilling thecrop 1944   1944  1944 request, falling short of the goal of 170,000 acres C™g by only 10,000 acres or 6 per cent; North Carolina lackedi’864 102  12 per cent of the 348,000 acre goal set for her for 1944;Hay ail”tame ................... ‘ 4*321   126  while South Carolina, the smallest of the three peanut peanuts2........................................... .  512 95 states, planted only 60,000 of her 110,000-acre recom-Soybeans (for beans) ...........................  308 125Cotton . ................. ...............................  1,887 ioo mendation. l^u^cured ............................................. 895.0   105  Cotton acreage in 1945 is to be kept at exactly theMaryland................................................ 40   2   102  same level as was planted in 1944, according to the Warah other ”!!!!”!!!!!”!.’ i7!o 121  Food Administration. The 1944 acreage was extremelySw^t ^Potatoes ‘‘ ‘*. ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘‘ *‘‘ ’ ’ ‘ ‘''‘ ’' i9i5 105  low, although it was equivalent to 95 per cent of the—------------------ , 11  total acreage requested of the cotton states of the Fifth 2Acreage grown alone for all purposes. ti 1  . r 1Percentages computed on the basis of 1944 planted acreages for corn, District, but the Crop Was large, due to elimination OI l^^harv^ted'^^reaV^fo^hay'.^os^'eaTis^an^^obacco^'^' ^ b3SiSsubmarginal land and to intensive cultivation of the   January 1945  MONTHLY REVIEW 3 planted acreage. The goal set for 1945 is 5 per cent smaller than the goal of last year.Tobacco acreage is to be held at approximately the same level or sftghtly higher in 1945 than was actually harvested in 1944. The harvest in 1944 fell short of the goal for that year by 37000 acres or 4 per cent; the 1945 goal is 10,000 acres higher than the 1944 goal, for an aggregate of all types of tobacco. Flue-cured acreage of 935,000 acres is requested for 1945 in Virginia and the Carolinas. This is 5 per cent above the harvested acreage of 1944, with the largest increase, percentage wise, recommended in South Carolina. The actual addi tional acreage requested in South Carolina is 24,000 acres; that in North Carolina, 20,000 acres; while Virginia is asked to keep her harvested acreage precisely the same as it was in 1944. A smaller number of acres of bur ley tobacco than was harvested in 1944 is recommended for1945 both in Virginia and North Carolina; West Virginia was requested to increase her harvest, which amounted to3,000 acres in 1944, by 300 acres. Maryland tobacco is to continue at the same level as it has for several years.1945 L ivestock  G oals The situation with regard to livestock goals is very similar to that described above in connection with crops. The goals for 1945 were set very close to actual accom plishment in 1944, except that farmers were asked to raise 17 per cent more chickens in 1945 than they did last year, and that a reduction of 8  per cent in spring farrow- ings of hogs was requested.The number of cattle and calves on farms for the Dis trict as a whole is recommended to be increased over the number on farms on December 31, 1944, by only 3 per cent, from 3,178,000 to 3,285,000 head. The changes suggested for the five states varied somewhat, however: Number, Goal, Goal as %   Dec. 31, Dec. 31, of Number   STATE 1944 1945 1944(Thous. of heads)Maryland .................................................... 366 370 101 Virginia ...................................................... ... 1,058 980 93West Virginia ............................................. 610 613 100North Carolina ........................................... 752 907 121South Carolina ........................................... 392 415 106Fifth District ............... .............................3,178 3,285 103 The only state in which farmers were asked to increase their spring farrowings of hogs was South Carolina. Other states were requested to decrease their spring far- rowings by from 13 per cent in Virginia to 8  per cent in West Virginia.Chicken production is to be increased 17 per cent in the Fifth Federal Reserve District in 1945, if farmers heed WFA requests. During the first few months of 1945, 100 per cent of all live chickens marketed in the major producing counties of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia will be set aside until military require ments are met. Most of the suggested increase in 1945 was requested for the state of North Carolina as can be seen below: Goal as % of  Number Raised, Goal, Number Raised,STATE _______ 1944 1945 1944(Thous. of heads)Maryland ............................................  8,329 7,500 90 Virginia .............................................. ... 18,233 16,162 89West Virginia ..................................... 4,952 5,018 101North Carolina ................................... ... 22,399 36,000 161South Carolina ................................... 9,248 9,248 100Fifth District -63,161 73,928 117 The 1945 milk production goal was placed at 5.7 billionpounds for the Fifth Federal Reserve District as a whole, only 3 per cent higher than actual production in 1944. Production is to be increased in every state by only a small percentage, however, varying from 1 per cent, or11 million pounds in West Virginia, to 3 per cent each in  Virginia and the Carolinas. The goal for 1945 for the Fifth District is less than 1 per cent above the recom mendation for last year. F arm  P roduction , 1944For the United States as a whole, total agricultural production in 1944 was the highest in history, 33 per cent above the five prewar years, 1935-1939. This is not necessarily true of the Fifth District, however, although farm production was at a high level here last year.The tobacco crop was unusually large in 1944, especial ly flue-cured and burley, the major cigarette types. The flue-cured crop in Virginia and the Carolinas in 1944 was 18 per cent higher than it was in the average of the three prewar years, 1937-1939. Burley tobacco produced in 1944 was 37 per cent above the production of the same prewar period. Demand for both of these types of tobacco and prices of both are high at present, reflecting the high level of cigarette consumption. Cigarettes are being consumed at the highest rate in the history of the country, with the high level due in large part to the sharp increase in shipments to the armed forces abroad. The total number of cigarettes shipped overseas in 1944 was probably in the neighborhood of 110  billion, the equiva lent of about one-third of the total output last year.The cotton crop in the three cotton-growing states of the Fifth Federal Reserve District in 1944 aggregated1,575,000 bales, compared with 1,316,000 bales in 1943 and with 1,412,000 bales for the average of the three years 1937-1939. The 1944 production represents an all- time record yield both in Virginia and in North Carolina.  Acreages were small in 1944 for several reasons: (1) un favorable weather at planting time; ( 2 ) availability of alternative crops, with greater returns, in many areas— for example, in regions where peanuts compete with cot ton for the use of the land, many farmers gave peanuts preference, because of favorable prices; (3) tight labor situation.Peanut production was likewise higher in 1944 than it was in previous years. Picked and threshed production exceeded the prewar average by 28 per cent in Virginia and the Carolinas. Peanuts have been an important source of oil since the war has closed off our important sources of oil in the Philippine Islands and the Netherlands In dies. In addition, salted peanuts and peanut butter are being used in the diet of the armed forces, and peanuts are included in the Army type C rations. Because of this edible use, the War Food Administration issued orders early in January 1945, requiring shellers to set aside for military use 50 per cent of their remaining stocks and subsequent purchases of 1944-crop Spanish-type peanuts and 30 per cent of Runner type peanuts. The quantities affected by this order, plus the volume previously desig nated for military use, is the equivalent of about 25 per cent of the 1944 Spanish crop and 20 per cent of the Runner crop, with about 45 per cent of the Virginia crop already earmarked for military use.Details of production of individual crops in the various states of the Fifth Federal Reserve District are pre sented in Table 2.   January 1945  4 MONTHLY REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL CROPS, FIFTH FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT, BY STATES   (All figures in thousands) T able  2 : PRODUCTION C rops   Unit Corn ...................................... bus.Wheat ..................................  bus.Oats ......................- ...............  bus. All tame hay ....................... tonsPeanuts for nuts .................  lbs.Soybeans for beans ...........  bus.Tobacco:Flue-cured ......................... lbs.Burley ................................  lbs.Maryland ........................... lbs. All other ..........................  lbs.Cotton ................................  balesPotatoes ..............................  bus.Sweet Potatoes ................... bus. C rops  U nit Corn ...................................... bus.Wheat ..................................  bus.Oats ...................................... bus. All tame hay ......................  tonsPeanuts for nuts ................. lbs.Soybeans for beans . ..........  bus.Tobacco:Flue-cured ........................  lbs.Burley — . ............................. lbs.Maryland ........................... lbs. All other . ..........................  lbs.Cotton ................................  balesPotatoes ..............................  bus.Sweet Potatoes . ................  bus. F ifth  D istrict  Average1937-3919431944139,777135,563137,53226,50320,50534,44221,65325,32829,4874,1414,6204,179454,329514,040580,7252,5523,8363,564817,098713,730967,80023,71625,61432,43028,26720,82732,16021,32111,86616,0751,4121,3161,57526,89229,64218,27418,57418,72321,266 W est  V  irginia  Average1937-391943194412,57514,04210,4262,1011,0531,6801,7511,5991,4308269648051239222,7722,7022,5502,805 2,775 2,040 M aryland  Average1937-391943194417,62211,80417,1508,2474,9138,9061,0071,0321,17053855648616732445528,26720,82732,1602,7801,9801,8241,0909601,280 N orth  C arolina  Average1937-391943194447,92951,01851,5245,7745,8128,9285,6305,9778,1511,0361,2161,121281,020301,920360,8251,8002,3132,058619,275542,200733,0008,39410,41215,0005425967008,63312,1006,9708,4667,5668,970  V  irginia  Average1937-391943194436,40333,27534,2728,5075,86311,2752,2032,8603,6721,3321,4181,357164,347174,720197,5005091,05694584,37085,050106,00012,55012,50014,88021,32111,86616,0752324309,9369,5945,9764,0012,9763,960 S outh  C arolina  Average1937-391943194425,24825,42424,1601,8742,8643,65311,06213,86015,0644094664108,96237,40022,4006410484113,45386,480128,8008476968452,7383,1931,4645,0177,2217,056   January 1945
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks