9 Branches of Social Science

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  DISCIPLINES OR BRANCHES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES  ANTHROPOLOGY Anthropology is the study of ancient societies and their cultural traditions. Anthropology came from the Greek word anthropos meaning “humankind” and logos meaning the “study”. Anthropology is also related to the other disciplines of the social sciences. An examination of the cultural practices of different groups and communities require knowledge of the history of the area where the people lived. There is also a need for familiarity with the physical environment, the group’s settlement patterns, the organization of their family life, their system of government, and so on and so forth. It has two broad fields, physical and cultural. Physical anthropology studies the biological evolution of man. Cultural anthropology, on the other hand, investigates and seeks to understand the cultural features of societies.  Economics Economics is the study of the efficient allocation of scarce resources in order to satisfy unlimited human needs and wants. The word Economics came from two Greek words, oikkos meaning “home” and nomos meaning “management”. A family faces the challenge of managing their limited income to satisfy the needs and wants of its members. The same is true with society as a whole. Economics resources that can be use to produce goods and services are called factors of production. It is classified into four categories: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Land is anything that comes from nature and which gives life and support to all living creatures. Labor refers to any human effort exerted during the production process which includes physical exertion, application of skills or talent or exercise of intellectual faculties. Capital refers to anything that can be use to create or manufacture goods and services. Entrepreneurship, which is not traditionally considered to be a factor of production, is now thought to be an indispensable aspects.  GEOGRAPHY Geography studies the interaction between the natural environment and the people living in it. It acts as a bridge between natural science and social science. Geography comes from two greek words : geo meaning earth and grapos meaning charting or mapping. Geography is divided into two main branches: physical and human. Physical geography studies the natural features of the earth, like climate, water, vegetation, and soil. Human geography studies human population and and the impact of its activities on the planet. The ancient people have been dabbling with geography even before the term was invented. The Babylonians were able to draw a map that clearly identifies their location in Mesopotamia. Homer’s llliad and the odyssey also contain a lot of geographical information even thought they are fictional works. The interest is partly stimulated by the extensive travels of alexander the great. The pioneer in the field is Eratosthenes of cyrene, who is the head of the great library at Alexandria and royal tutor to the king Ptolemy IV.
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