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A Brief History of Mexico From the Late 1700s to the Mid

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A brief history of Mexico from the late 1700s to the mid-1800s: 1767 Emperor Charles III attempts to limit the power of the Catholic Church and expels the Jesuits from all Spanish territories. Their expulsion sparks rebellion in several regions of Mexico, which is brutally repressed by the Viceroy’s forces. 1789 The politically liberal ideas of the French Revolution [liberty, fraternity, equality] spread to the New World. Mestizos and criollos demand to have more of a role in the governing of Nu
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  A brief history of Mexico from the late 1700s to the mid-1800s:1767 Emperor Charles III attempts to limit the power of the Catholic Church andexpels the Jesuits from all Spanish territories. Their expulsion sparks rebellion inseveral regions of Mexico, which is brutally repressed by the Viceroy’s forces. 1789 The politically liberal ideas of the French Revolution [liberty, fraternity, equality]spread to the New World. Mestizos and criollos demand to have more of a role in thegoverning of Nueva España. 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte occupies Spain, and installs his brother Joseph as the headof state. The war between Spain [with Britain] and France leads to Mexicanindependence, as Spain begins to fall apart nationally and internationally. 1810 On 16 September, in the village of Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo issues his cryfor independence, called “El grito de Dolores.” This set off a number of revolutionaryactivities by natives and mestizos. While initially successful, the movement loses steamand is defeated. Hidalgo is captured and executed. 16 Sept. is celebrated as Mexico’sIndependence Day. 1814 Father José Morelos proclaims a Mexican republic before being defeated by theroyalist sympathizer General Agustín de Iturbide. 1821 Revolts in Spain usher in an era of liberal reforms; conservative Mexican leadersplan to end the Viceroyalty system and declare independence. Iturbide issues a plan[read it!]. In August the last Viceroy signs the Treaty of Córdoba and Mexico isofficially independent. 1823 Iturbide, who had declared himself Emperor, is overthrown by General Antonio deSanta Anna, who declares a republic. Guadalupe Victoria is the first elected president,Iturbide is executed, and thus begins a long struggle between Centralist [conservative]and Federalist [liberal] politicians. 1833 Santa Anna becomes president. 1846 The US declares war on Mexico in order to acquire Texas, New Mexico andCalifornia. Despite a series of US victories, Mexico refuses to admit defeat. In 1847US troops capture Mexico City and a formal peace is reached in the Treaty ofGuadalupe Hidalgo, wherein the US acquires what is now the South West, and was then½ of Mexico’s territory.  1857 A new era of reform. Santa Anna is forced into exile. Liberal leaders write a newconstitution and establish Mexico as a Federation, guarantee freedom of speech,universal voting rights [for men], curtail the power and wealth of the Catholic Church.Conservative factions oppose these changes and a 3 year-long civil war erupts. 1861 Benito Juárez, a Zapotec Indian, emerges from the war as a champion of theLiberals. He suspended payment of Mexico’s foreign debt. Lead by Napoleon III,France, Great Britain and Spain intervene to protect their investments in Mexico, andoccupy Veracruz. Napoleon III sends his troops to Mexico City, forcing Juárez to fleein 1863. Maximilian, the Archduke of Austria, is installed as Emperor. 1867 The US continued to recognize Juárez as the leader, and pressures France towithdraw its troops from Mexico. After Mexican troops, lead by General Porfirio Díaz,occupy Mexico City, Maximilian is forced to surrender and is court-martialed andexecuted. Once back in power, Juárez proposes changes to the Constitution tostrengthen executive powers.
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