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A Critical Review of the Advanced Research on Emotional Intelligence in Management -Based on Relationship with OCB-

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So-Jung Kim & Kyoung-Seok Kim
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  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 4, June 2014   ISSN: 2321-242X © 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 233   Abstract   —  As the environment changes in and outside of the organization recently and the technical capability and personal relationship capability become important, the interest in the Emotional Intelligence of the members of an organization becomes high. And, since the service industry is growing more and more and industrialization of knowledge is being magnified as time goes by, the need for the elastic and network management of organization is coming to the fore. Accordingly, in the organizational behaviour study field also which had focused on the past reasonable and cognitive approach, the issues regarding the emotions of the members of the organization is no longer considered to be non-rational elements and is considered now to be one factor which affect importantly the job attitude, behaviour and organizational achievement, and the Emotional Intelligence can be seen to be receiving much more attention recently in this context. Thus study intends to survey the advanced researches on the Emotional Intelligence which had beenpreceded in the  business management in relation with the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) criticize the problems of the advanced researches so far and consider the direction of the studies on Emotional Intelligence in the management differentiated from other study fields. Keywords   —  Advanced Research; Emotional Intelligence; Leadership; Management; Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). Abbreviations   —  Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). I.   I NTRODUCTION   ODAY, the management environment is changing rapidly. As the unlimited competition and globalization of the market are promoted, the innovativeness, creativity and spontaneousness of the members of the organization are becoming important more and more for the maintenance and development of the organization. In this environment, the ability of communicating well based on the autonomy and personal relationship management ability of the members of organization and dealing with one's emotions well has  become as important as the logical ability and the technical ability. Although the emotions can explain many parts which were not able to be explained as the cognitive factor in the organizational behaviour field, the studies so far have been focused only on the cognitive factors and did not put important on the emotions. The reason for this is because the emotions were thought to be irrational and the necessity of managing or analysing the emotions felt in terms of the rational thought which has been acknowledged as the means of obtainments of achievement of organization. But, as the eras pass by, the studies dealing with humans recognized the importance of emotions gradually and studies on the emotions were actively preceded in various social science fields. The study on the Emotional Intelligence started in the  psychology and pedagogy. The emotions and feelings of the employees which had not been cherished before is now respected in management field as well as the era changes and the necessity of study on them has been raised. The study on Emotional Intelligence in management can be divided into a total of 2 scopes. First, it is the study on the Emotional Intelligence as the qualification as a leader and is a scope on the Emotional Intelligence of the leader and the effectiveness of the organization. Second, it is the scope on the personal Emotional Intelligence, personal behaviour and attitude of the members of organization and the effectiveness of the organization. T *School of Business Administration, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Buk-Gu, KOREA. E-Mail: fione{at}hanmail{dot}net **School of Business Administration, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Buk-Gu, KOREA. E-Mail: kskim{at}knu{dot}ac{dot}kr So-Jung Kim* & Kyoung-Seok Kim** A Critical Review of the Advanced Research on Emotional Intelligence in Management -Based on Relationship with OCB-  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 4, June 2014   ISSN: 2321-242X © 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 234   As the practical study appears which asserts that the Emotional Intelligence can affect the result variable of the organization, the fact is being recognized to be important that the Emotional Intelligence of an individual affects importantly the achievement variable of the organization. Thus, the studies which tried the connection between the Emotional Intelligence and the various result variables of the organization appeared. Recently, as one of the occurrence requirements of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour which has spontaneous characteristic regardless of the explicit compensation, the Emotional Intelligence of the members of the organization is being emphasized importantly. Most of the studies on the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour start with the assumption that the  behaviour of the members of the organization will improve the effectiveness of the organization. The specific reasons that the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) affects the effectiveness of the organization are improvement of  productivity of the employees, inducement of cooperation of members and inducement and maintenance of the capable talents etc. Based on this, most of the studies so far have dealt with the relationship between the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and cognitive variables like job satisfaction and organization commitment. However, the discretion, the essence of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour was overlooked and thus the cognitive variables were ignored. The meanings of this study are as follows. First, in the management academia recently, it is comprehended that there is limitation in that only the rational ability and reasonable  judgement explain the effectiveness of the organization, and the importance of the Emotional Intelligence which treats members of the organization emotionally, treats them in human way and provide various considerations for them is  becoming bigger. However, the conceptual definition of the Emotional Intelligence is not corrected and developed and the concept is imprudently being introduced in the practical studies. The necessity is high that the concept of the Emotional Intelligence and components which can be applied in the circumstances of management organization be re-established. Second, to see the precedent studies so far, the studies which deal with the effect of the emotional aspect on the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour are not many compared to the studies on the effect of the cognitive aspect on the organizational civil behaviour. Since the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour is a voluntary sacrifice which does not consider the calculative profit, review on the emotional aspect other than the cognitive aspect is needed. There is a need to survey what effect the emotional aspect of members of an organization on the prediction of effectiveness of organization like organizational civil behaviour. This study intends to survey the precedent studies on the Emotional Intelligence which had been proceeded in management in relation with the organizational civil  behaviour, criticize the problems of the studies which have  been proceeded so far and survey the direction of the studies on the Emotional Intelligence in management which is differentiated from other study fields. II.   T HEORETICAL B ACKGROUND   2.1.   Definition of the Emotional Intelligence The Emotional Intelligence is another intelligence which is differentiated from the cognitive rationality intelligence as can been seen from its etymology. The emotion and the intelligence were considered to be different concepts since 1990s, and the spiritual ability of human was divided into rationality ability and emotional ability. The Emotional Intelligence was academically discussed in the pedagogy and  psychology fields since 1920s and its source can be found in the social intelligence proposed by Thorndike (1920). Social intelligence can be defined as the ability of understanding and making relationships with people. Emotions were considered to be one ability and the ground in which the emotions can be an intelligence is that all the intelligence problem solving should accompany emotional information. Gardner (1983) has divided into a total of 7 human intelligences which are lingual intelligence, musical intelligence, logical intelligence, mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, body exercise intelligence and personal intelligence and especially, the  personal intelligence is the ability of knowing one's own emotions and understanding other people's emotions. Here the personal intelligence coincides with the concept of the social intelligence which was not considered in the traditional IQ test. It was the professor from Yale University in U.S.A, Salovey & Mayer (1990) who used the term, Emotional Intelligence for the first time in 1990. According to Salovey & Mayer (1990), it is a sub-element of social intelligence and is the ability of monitoring emotions, recognizing their differences and utilizing the emotional information for the thoughts and behaviours. With the release of the bestseller, 'Emotional Intelligence' by Daniel Goleman in 1995, the Emotional Intelligence was more specified and started receiving attention socially. He has included abilities like the self-emotion awareness, self-emotion regulation, self-motivation, empathy and personal relationship technology and other  psychological characteristics which aid such abilities based on the ability model by Salovey & Mayer (1990) and re-established the concept. He emphasized that this Emotional Intelligence can become an important index which can  predict effectively the success in the job life of adults and that implementing appropriate education and management is very important for the development of Emotional Intelligence of the members of the organization [Goleman, 1995]. After that many practical studies on the relationship between the Emotional Intelligence of the leaders and members and the efficacy in the job site have been followed. Bar-on (1997) has expanded the ability model of Salovey & Mayer and asserted that the Emotional Intelligence is a capability which is not focused on the cognitive phase of the intelligence but on the personal, emotional and social scopes. He defined that Emotional Intelligence is the effective emotion and social functionalism which lead to the  psychological wellbeing of the individual. After that he corrected the concept a little and defined that it is the overall  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 4, June 2014   ISSN: 2321-242X © 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 235   ability which can cope effectively with the arrangement of social knowledge and emotions and environmental demands and indifferently from the cognitive intelligence, the success of an individual can be predicted with it. After that, many scholars have studied the concept of Emotional Intelligence and the common assertion is that it is the intelligence which is different from the traditional IQ. In conclusion, the Emotional Intelligence should be seen as an independent concept which works independently from other abilities related to intelligence. 2.2.   Sub-dimension of Emotional Intelligence Discussions have been raised for several years on the sub-dimensions and sub-scopes which comprise the concept of Emotional Intelligence. The main study-specific summary  based on the concept and main components of Emotional Intelligence is as follows. Table 1: Concept and Components of Emotional Intelligence Researchers Concept and Components  Salovey & Mayer (1990) -Awareness and expression of the emotions: Ability of assessing owns emotions and others' emotions and expressing them effectively. -Regulation of emotions: Ability of suppressing and regulating effectively the emotions of one's own and others. - Utilization of emotions: Ability of utilizing emotions in order to plan and achieve one's life. Goleman (1995) -Self-awareness: Ability of recognizing and knowing owns emotions swiftly. - Self regulation: Ability of regulating and managing appropriately one's emotions. - Self motivation: Ability of finding out difficulties, making efforts for achievements and self-motivating. - Empathy : Ability of feeling and understanding other people's emotions -Personal relationship skills: Ability of coping with emotions of others appropriately and regulating the personal relationship. Mayer & Salovey (1997) - Ability of recognizing, assessing and expressing emotions correctly. - Ability of understanding the emotions and emotional knowledge. - Ability of promoting thoughts by using emotions. - Ability of incurring emotions. - Ability of regulating the emotions to improve the emotional growth and intellectual growth. Cooper & Sawaf (1997) -Emotional refinement: Emotional sincerity and emotional feedback -Emotional health: Expresses true shape and reliability -Emotional depth: Unique potentiality and immersion -Emotional secret method: Contributes to the capture of the intuitive flow opportunity and creation of the future. Goleman (1998) - Self-awareness ability: Humorous ability of minimizing the self-confidence, realistic self-assessment and self-importance. - Self-regulating ability: Comfortable mind about reliability, sincerity and obscurity and openness about changes. -Self motivation ability: Strong desires for achievement, optimism even when confronted with failures, sacrifice to the organization. - Empathy ability : Professional knowledge and skills possessing talents, sensitivity to different cultures and service to the customer -Social personal relationship ability: Validness about change and initiation, persuasiveness and professional knowledge and skills which lead and establish teams. Dulewicz & Higgs (1998; 2000) - Self-awareness: Ability of recognizing and managing one's feelings. -Emotional elastic force: Ability of maintaining emotions appropriately when confronted with suppression or pressure. -Motivation: Ability of exerting and bringing out energy to complete the objective or task. -Between-individual sensitivity: Ability of expressing meticulously the sympathetic feelings and altruism. -Influence: Ability of persuading and influencing emotionally to make one's point of view or assertions understood by the counterparts. -Intuition: Ability of using one's inspirations and intuitions appropriately according to the situations in decision making. -Sincerity and integrity: Ability of acting, having coherence in the words and behaviours and ethical standard. Jordan et al., (2002) -Emotional awareness: Ability of understanding and expressing one's own emotions and recognizing well the emotional needs of other people. -Emotional assimilation: Ability of differentiating and absorbing the emotions felt differently by each person. - Emotional understanding: Ability of understanding well complex emotions like dilemmas hard to be decided and co-existence of loyalty and sense of betrayal etc. -Emotional management : Ability of using emotions appropriately according to the given situation Wong & Law (2002) -Understanding of one's own emotions: Ability of recognizing and understanding one's own emotions correctly. - Understanding of other people's emotions : Ability of recognizing and understanding other people's emotions around oneself -Emotion utilization: Ability of utilizing one's own emotional information in the personal achievement and constructive activity. - Emotion regulation : Ability of expressing one's emotions appropriately according to the given situation Weinberger (2003) - Ability of understanding one's emotions -Ability of understanding other people's emotions. -Smooth personal relationship ability - Ability of adapting to the change of the environment and demands appropriately and emotionally. Cote & Miners (2006) - Ability of recognizing the emotions. - Emotion utilization ability -Ability of understanding the emotions and emotional knowledge - Ability of regulating emotions.  The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 4, June 2014   ISSN: 2321-242X © 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 236   In the beginning, the emotional intelligence was divided into 3 scopes, assessment and expression of emotions, regulation of emotions and utilization of emotions. After that,  by liking the emotions and thoughts more precisely, the commonality between the emotional intelligence and intelligence were emphasized, and the studies to enhance the discrimination capacity with common intelligence were followed. Scholars have different opinions on components of emotional intelligence, but there appear the Self-Emotional Appraisal (SEA), Other’s Emotional Appraisal  (OEA), Regulation of Emotion in the self (ROE) and the Use of Emotion to facilitate performance (UOE) based on the 4 scopes of perception, understanding, regulation and utilization of emotions commonly. First, Self-emotional appraisal is the ability of understanding and expressing one's own emotions. Second, other's emotional appraisal is the ability of understanding and perceiving other people's emotions. Third, the regulation of emotion in self means the ability of regulating and controlling one's emotions which help express not in impulsive behaviour but in behaviours in appropriate directions according to the given situation. Lastly, the use of emotion to facilitate performance is the ability of utilizing the emotions to enhance the achievement. It helps cope with new problems in a new and wise method when there is a strong negative emotion. 2.3.   Similar Concepts 2.3.1.    Emotional Intelligence The summary of the terms related directly or indirectly to the Emotional Intelligence is as follows. Terms like Social Intelligence, Personal Intelligence, Emotional Competence, Practice Intelligence, Moral Intelligence, Multiple Intelligence, Emotional Creativity, Successful Intelligence, and Emotional Intelligence are variously used. But, since Salovey & Mayer used the term, Emotional Intelligence in 1990s, the term EI is commonly used. And, the EQ (Emotional Quotient) was first used by Goleman (1995) which contrasts with IQ, and EQ and EI are usually seen as the same concept. 2.3.2.    Emotion Work Emotion work means the behaviour of trying changes in the emotions and feelings. Doing emotion work means the same as managing the emotion and refers to such inner behaviour. 2.3.3.    Emotion Regulation Gross (1998) has defined emotion as the adaptive behavioural and physiological response trend. According to Gross (1998), since emotions are the adjustable response trend, emotions can be adjusted and managed. Here, the emotion regulation means the series of process which can affect in experiencing one's own emotions and expressing these emotions. This definition by Gross (1998) is similar to the concept of Emotional Intelligence. 2.3.4.    Emotional Labour Hochschild (1983) has defined the emotional labour as the management of emotions to make physical expressions which can be observed by other people. He has conceptualized the emotion labour as another scope of labour which manages and regulates the individual emotions through organizational expression rules and interaction with customers. III.   C RITICISM OF A DVANCED R ESEARCH ON THE E MOTIONAL I NTELLIGENCE   First, up to now, most of the studies were on the rational and normative scope in management field and the studies on the emotions inside an organization have been ignored. Systematic approach from a new point of view not as a simple object for interest will be needed to prove the objectiveness of the Emotional Intelligence and apply it commonly. Second, the conceptual definition of the Emotional Intelligence is not being corrected and developed and is applied as it is in the practical studies. The practical studies on the Emotional Intelligence are still in the preliminary step and they are only imprudent introduction of concepts. Thus,  by having critical mind about this problem, the concept and components of Emotional Intelligence which can be applied to situations of managerial organization needs to be re-established. Third, many scholars see the Emotional Intelligence as unique characteristic owned by an individual like personal character and personality and see that these variables regulates the effect on the individual behaviour. To see in the human resources management sense, the creativity, autonomy and personality are based on the individual's emotional ability and thus the importance of the interest in the individual's emotions and the utilization and application of the Emotional Intelligence in the organization is becoming high. Also, since there is limitation in the rational approach method which tries to solve problems with the brain, the emotional intelligent approach method which emphasizes the between-individual emotions and utilize them is more effective in establishing the reliable relationship between members. Fourth, since the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour is a voluntary sacrifice which does not consider the calculative  profit, review on the emotional aspect other than the cognitive aspect is needed. There is a need to survey on which effect the emotional aspect of members of organization on the prediction of organizational validity like organizational civil behaviour. In conclusion, as the factor which affects the efficacy of the individual, it should be acknowledged that the Emotional Intelligence is as important as the intelligent intelligence. And, in the corporate ’ s part also development of Emotional Intelligence will be needed to maximize the efficacy of organizations.

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