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AQA A-Level Physics
Component Code 7407 and 7408
Note foruser:This resources was created by an A Level Student (momondion TES) in2017 in preparation for upcoming A level Exams. As such if there are any errors, do contact the author of this resource.
This is intended as a guide for useful formulae that can be used in exam questions
and to help build understanding on the topics studied at AQA
Resources referred to making this resource:
CGP A Level Year 1
–
The Complete Course for AQA
CGP ALevel Year 2
–
The Complete Course for AQA
Advanced Physics For YouAQA SpecificationAQA A Level Physics formula sheet
Key
Blue equation
–
Given formulae
Red equation
–
Not given formulae
ℎ =
()
ℎ =
= ℎ = ℎ
ℎ =
This is the charge to mass ratio for a particle/nucleus/ion.
(
−
)
1 = 1.6×10
−
ℎ = 6.63×10
−
Planck’s
constant
= ℎ = ℎ
The energy of a photon of EM radiation is directly proportional to its frequency
= ℎ
The
work function
,
is
the minimum amount of energy
needed to
release an electron
from the
surface of a metal
The
threshold frequency
,
is the
minimum frequency of EM radiation
needed to
release an electron
from the
surface of a metal
The kinetic energy of photoelectrons is up to a maximum because:
ã
Photons are absorbed by electrons on a one to one basis
ã
Some electrons are deeper in the metal than others
ã
This means that they require more energy than the work function to be released, so their kinetic energy will be lower than those from the surfaceParticles with a larger momentum will have a smaller de Broglie wavelength.
()
=
Stopping potential,
is the potential difference needed to stop the fastest moving electron in a photocell experimentThe de-excitation of an electron between two energy levels will emit a photon of EM radiation.An electron must gain a specific amount of energy in order to be excited to a higher energy level
=
2
Pair Production:
The minimum energy needed for pair production is equal to double the rest energy of one particle produced
=
Annihilation
The minimum energy of one photon produced is equal to the rest energy of one of the particles which have been annihilated
Key
Blue equation
–
Given formulae
Red equation
–
Not given formulae
=
= sin =
sin
=
sin
= 12 = 1 = = sin
=
=
∝ ()
ℎ = 2 =
The frequency of the first harmonic on a stringWhere
is the total mass of the string divided by its total length (mass per unit length,
−
)
.The frequency of the 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
harmonics etc will be a multiple of the first harmonicYoung Double Slit Experiment
ã
is the fringe spacing
ã
is the distance from the screen to the slit
ã
is the slit separationDiffraction Gratings
ã
stands for the order, the position of a maxima
ã
For a fixed slit width,
, light with a longer wavelength will be diffracted more Intensity is the energy transferred per second over an area of
1
(
−
)
The refractive index must always be higher than 1! The higher the number, the more optically dense the medium is
is the more dense medium in this caseThe critical angle can only occurs when light goes from a more dense to a less dense medium.This means that
must be less dense in this case
Note: If you get math error, the refractive indexes are the wrong way round
Snell’s law
is the angle of incidence
is the angle of refraction

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