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A national video library for teacher preparation in visual impairment and blindness

A national video library for teacher preparation in visual impairment and blindness
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  ResearchReport  A National Video Library forTeacher Preparation in VisualImpairments  Ellen Trief, Jim Lengel, and Laura Baecher  T he 44 institutions of higher education thatprepare teachers of students with visual impair-ments in North America are deeply committedtoprovidingthebestpossibleeducationfortheircandidates. Whether undergraduate, graduate,or certificate programs, core courses for prepar-ingteachersofstudentswithvisualimpairmentsare similar among these institutions (Ambrose-Zaken & Bozeman, 2010). Each program offerseducational foundations courses, methodscourses, and student teaching or practicum sem-inars, along with courses about assistive tech-nology, orientation and mobility, assessment,and classroom management.Although preparation programs for teach-ers of students with visual impairments sharecommon curricula and goals, these programsalso share a common challenge—the lack of readily available models of exemplary teach-ing practice that can be readily viewed andlinked to course curricula. In addition, be-cause 42 of the 44 programs incorporate dis-tance learning models, the majority must usemultimedia, such as video cases, to commu-nicate course content. To address this nationalchallenge, good-quality videos of best teach-ing practices in the field are needed.This Research Report presents the findingsof the first phase of a multiyear funded projectwhose ultimate purpose is to clearly defineand then create a video clip library of 8- to10-minute video clips that demonstrate exem-plary teaching practices for working with stu-dents who are visually impaired (that is, thosewho are blind or have low vision). Thesevideos would represent elementary to highschool settings in the areas of literacy, braillereading and writing, mathematics, the Nem-eth Code and abacus, technology, science,and social studies, as well as for working withstudents with severe and multiple disabilities.The research questions that guided this phaseof the project included, What teaching prac-tices are of greatest importance to personnelpreparation programs for teachers of studentswith visual impairments to be included in thisvideo clip library? and How do faculty plan touse these video clips in the preparation of teachers? V IDEO AS A TOOL IN A TEACHER ’ SDEVELOPMENT As digital video has become more portable,accessible, and affordable than ever, its appli-cation to teachers’ learning has flourished overthe past 10 years. Brouwer’s (2011) review of video as a tool in a teacher’s development or-ganized its uses into three approaches: orienta-tion, support, and assessment. Support and as-sessment involve teachers in viewing andreflecting upon their practice either throughvideo records of their own teaching or by ob-serving videos of others (Baecher & Connor,2010; Gale, Trief, & Lengel, 2010; Sherin &van Es, 2005; Tripp & Rich, 2012).For this project, Brouwer’s (2011) use of “orientation” is relevant because the videoclips to be housed in the online library de-scribed in this report are intended to be usedto illustrate techniques, methods, and prac-tices as a component of a preservice course oran in-service training initiative. The use of video cases in addition to text has been shownto be an effective tool for teacher educators asan introduction to classroom practices thattheir candidates will later attempt (Copeland& Decker, 1996; Koc, Peker, & Osmanoglu,2009; Sherin, 2004; Wang & Hartley, 2003;Welsch & Devlin, 2007). By studying specificdimensions of practice through specially de-signed video cases, teacher candidates gain an Special thanks to the Lavelle Fund for supportingthis project. ©2013 AFB, All Rights Reserved  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , January-February 2013  55  enhanced understanding of concepts that arepresented in their courses (Skiera & Stirling,2004). Masingila and Doerr (2002) reportedthat multimedia cases guide teacher candi-dates’ instructional practices and help connectthe candidates’ practice with that of theteacher in the video case. M ETHOD To provide a rich array of video examples of best practices in teaching students who arevisually impaired for teacher educators andcandidates across the United States, the goalof the funded initiative described here is toprovide all candidates who are studying to beteachers of students with visual impairmentsfree access to the video clip library through apassword-protected Internet-based site. If all44 programs embed the video clips in theircoursework, then at least 300–500 studentsper year will be viewing the video clip library.In addition, many teacher candidates havevisual impairments themselves, and the videoclips will be made totally accessible to peoplewith visual impairments.As a first step in developing this videolibrary, a questionnaire was created to seek input from all 44 personnel preparation pro-grams throughout the country to identify whattypes of video clips they believe are needed ingraduate-level courses for teachers of stu-dents with visual impairments. An advisoryboard of 10 people was established, 5 fromuniversity personnel preparation programsand 5 from programs that serve children whoare visually impaired, to help design thisquestionnaire and later identify exemplaryteachers and evaluate the quality of the clips.The questionnaire was designed to addressthe seven following areas using a Likert scale,from most important to least important, toinclude in the video clip library: literacy,mathematics, other subject-specific clips, vi-sual efficiency and learning media, assistivetechnology, the expanded core curriculum, andmultiple disabilities. In addition, each area hadan open-ended question regarding which addi-tional video clips would be recommended forthis library. At the end of the questionnaire, theparticipantswereaskedhowthepersonnelprep-aration faculty planned on using the clips.The questionnaire was posted using SurveyMonkey from December 2011 to February2012 through the Division 17 Listserv of AER. Division 17 represents personnel prep-aration programs in visual impairments. F INDINGS Respondents from 29 of the 44 programs(67.4%) answered the questionnaire. Whenasked what types of literacy video clips theywould like to see included in the video cliplibrary, they said that they preferred videosthat concentrate on several areas of instruc-tion. In the area of literacy, 70.8% (17 out of 24) of the respondents requested videos thatconcentrated on braille reading at the begin-ning level, and 76.9% (20 out of 26) requestedbraille reading skills with a child who waspreviously a print reader. The areas of teach-ing a child the use of a braillewriter, 16% (4out of 25); the slate and stylus, 8% (2 out of 25); and teaching a literacy lesson to a studentwith low vision, 30.7% (8 out of 26), yieldedlower results in terms of importance. Five of 7 respondents to the open-ended question re-quested additional video clips in the literacyof students with additional disabilities duringa literacy lesson.The areas of most importance in terms of mathematics video clips were teaching amathematics lesson using the Nemeth Code,77% (20 out of 26), and tactile graphics formathematics, 84% (21 out of 25). The use of the abacus, 32% (8 out of 25), and the use of the talking calculator, 7.4% (2 out of 25),were considered of less importance. Fiveindividuals responded to the open-endedquestion regarding other video clips, and theirresponses included the use of an accessible sci-entific notebook, functional mathematics in-struction for students with multiple disabilities, 56  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , January-February 2013 ©2013 AFB, All Rights Reserved  learning to graph and use a compass, the use of manipulativematerials,andteachingoptionsforlong division.For subject-specific video clips, teaching ahigh school science lab to a student who istotally blind, 88% (22 out of 25), and teachinga high school science lab to a student with lowvision, 61.6% (16 out of 26), were rated asmost important in this area. Both teaching asocial studies lesson to a student who is to-tally blind, 36% (9 out of 25), and teaching asocial studies lesson to a student with lowvision, 15.4% (4 out of 26), were rated lessimportant. Physical education, working with astudent who is prelinguistic, and art and mu-sic were also listed in the open-ended cate-gory of “other.”When asked what types of video clips dem-onstrate visual efficiency and learning media,the respondents rated those that demonstratethe administration of a functional vision as-sessment, 76.9% (20 out of 26), and the ad-ministration of a learning media assessment,56% (14 out of 25), most highly. Teaching arange of optical devices and instruction intheir use yielded a 36% (9 out of 25) rate of importance, and teaching a range of electronicprint access devices yielded a 37% (10 out of 25) rate of importance. In the open-endedquestion, the responses included a desire tohave videos on teaching visual efficiencyskills, assessing students with cortical visualimpairment, and providing additional eye re-ports and materials on each student fromthese videos.In the area of assistive technology, teachingon how to use JAWS, 52% (13 out of 25), andteaching on how to use an iPad, 44% (11 outof 25), were rated most important by the re-spondents. Teaching how to use a PDA (per-sonal data assistant), 27.3% (6 out of 22), andteaching initial keyboarding, 25.9% (7 out of 27), were rated as less important. In the open-ended question, other answers by 7 respondentsincludeddigitaltalkingbooks,theVictorreader,screen magnification, the BrailleNote, and brailleembossers.For the 10 areas of the expanded core curric-ulum, the areas that were rated as most impor-tant were social skills, 62.5% (15 out of 23);listeningandcompensatoryauditoryskills,40%(10 out of 22), and self-determination, 38.4%(10 out of 26). The areas of adapted physicaleducation, recreational skills, career-vocationalskills, self-advocacy, an Individualized Educa-tion Program (IEP) and interdisciplinary teammeeting, and orientation and mobility all scoredbetween 12% and 30.7% in importance. In theopen-ended question in this category of other,no other areas were listed.The final areas of consideration were videoclips showing children with multiple disabil-ities including visual impairment. The areathat was rated most important for video clipswere students with multiple disabilities in in-clusion settings in Grades 1–6, 70.4% (19 outof 27). The ratings in other areas were stu-dents with multiple disabilities in self-contained settings, 29.6% (8 out of 27); alter-nate and augmentative communication with astudent with multiple disabilities, 25.9% (7out of 27); visual skills for a student withmultiple disabilities, 33.3% (9 out of 27);transition skills, 11.5% (3 out of 27); andteaching a student with a cortical visual im-pairment, 28% (7 out of 27). In the open-ended category of other, the IEP meeting andthe appropriate use of language for studentswith multiple disabilities were mentioned.The final open-ended question asked therespondents to share how they anticipated thevideo clips would be used. This questionyielded responses from 21 of 29 respondents,who planned to use the video clips in theirteaching in a variety of ways, ranging fromembedding them into PowerPoint, using themin distance education assignments, viewingthem live during class, and viewing them as abasis for discussions in online classes. Severalrespondents highlighted these points. ©2013 AFB, All Rights Reserved  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , January-February 2013  57  D ISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS The respondents clearly articulated whattypes of video clips they would like to see in avideo clip library and how they would use theclips in their programs. In the areas of literacy,mathematics, specific subjects, visual and learn-ing media assessments, technology, the ex-panded core curriculum, and multiple disabili-ties, they identified specific types of clips.The next phase of the project was to ask these programs to identify exemplary teachersof students with visual impairments through-out the United States and Canada. Fifty teach-ers were identified and asked to participate inthe filming of the clips. The recording of the8- to 10-minute clips in at least six states andCanada representing rural, urban, and subur-ban settings with an ethnically diverse popu-lation of students and teachers began in Sep-tember 2012 and will conclude in March2013. An evaluation by the advisory board toselect appropriate clips to upload to the onlineplatform will be administered using a struc-tured evaluation rubric. Dissemination of theclips to the field will be done by spring 2014.The clips will also be embedded into theupdated textbook of the American Foundationfor the Blind, which is used by most of thepersonnel preparation programs throughout thecountry. Working together to assess commonneeds and interests, as well as to plan the usageof the video clips, as documented in this phaseof the research, has shown that there is a need toaccess video clips for online personnel prepara-tion programs in visual impairments. It is hopedthat the creation of this video library will servethe needs of teacher educators who are commit-ted to the preparation of effective teachers of students who are visually impaired. R EFERENCES Ambrose-Zaken, G., & Bozeman, L. (2010).Profile in personnel preparation programsin visual impairment and their faculty.  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness,104 , 148–168.Baecher, L., & Connor, D. (2010). “What doyou see?” Using video analysis of class-room practice in a preparation program forteachers of students with learning disabili-ties.  Insights on Learning Disabilities, 7  (2),5–18.Brouwer, N. (2011).  Imaging teacher learn-ing: A literature review on the use of digital video for preservice teacher edu-cation and professional development.  Pa-per presented at the annual meeting of theAmerican Educational Research Associ-ation, New Orleans.Copeland, W. D., & Decker, D. L. (1996).Video cases and the development of mean-ing making in preservice teachers.  Teach-ing and Teacher Education, 12 , 467–481.Gale, E., Trief, E., & Lengel, J. (2010). The useof video analysis in a personnel preparationprogram for teachers of students who arevisually impaired.  Journal of Visual Impair-ment & Blindness, 104,  700–704.Koc, Y., Peker, D., & Osmanoglu, A. (2009).Supporting teacher professional developmentthrough online video case study discussions:An assemblage of preservice and inserviceteachers and the case teacher.  Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 , 1158–1168.Masingila, J. O., & Doerr, H. M. (2002).Understanding pre-service teachers’emerging practices through their analysesof a multimedia case study of practice.  Journal of Mathematics Teacher Educa-tion, 5 , 235–263.Sherin, M. G. (2004). New perspectives on therole of video in teacher education. In J. Bro-phy (Ed.),  Advances in research on teaching:Using video in teacher education  (Vol. 10,pp. 1–27). Oxford, England: Elsevier.Sherin, M., & van Es, E. (2005). Using videoto support teachers’ ability to notice class-room interactions.  Journal of Technologyand Teacher Education, 13 , 475–491.Skiera, P., & Stirling, D. (2004). Using videocases to enhance professional developmentprograms. In L. Cantoni & C. McLoughlin(Eds.),  Proceedings of the World Confer-ence on Educational Multimedia, Hyper-media and Telecommunications 2004  (pp.3194–3198). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. 58  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , January-February 2013 ©2013 AFB, All Rights Reserved  Tripp, T. R., & Rich, J. P. (2012). The influ-ence of video analysis on the process of teacher change.  Teaching and Teacher Ed-ucation ,  28 , 728–739.Wang, J., & Hartley, K. (2003). Video tech-nology as a support for teacher educationreform.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11 , 124–128.Welsch, R., & Devlin, P. (2007). Developingpreservice teachers’ reflection: Examiningthe use of video.  Action in Teacher Educa-tion, 28 , 53–61.  Ellen Trief, Ed.D.,  professor, Programs in Blind and Visually Impaired and Severe/Multiple Dis-abilities, Department of Special Education, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065; e-mail:   .  Jim Lengel, M.Ed., visiting professor, Hunter College, City Universityof New York; e-mail:    .  Laura Baecher, Ed.D.,  assistant professor,TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages), Department of Curriculum and Teach-ing, Hunter College, City University of New York;e-mail:   . ! #$%&'()'*+',%'-./0 %12 3'*'1- /45.6'%'&.&'1- 7 /4*4./+5 +1-84/4-+4 ! " # $ % & % # ! %   Hyatt Regency Minneapolis | Minneapolis, Minnesota September 19-21, 2013 COLLABORATION,   ADVOCACY, RESEARCH, EDUCATION !"#$%  '()* +,(-./01/2 !)3456 7, 7386*796 (* 8/885(, :*(:(87.2 ;%#$<     *(4 ./70/*8 5, 6  /  /.0 (    .(- =585(, */>735.56765(, 7,0 */8/7*9>2 %#$<  =7.)73./ 9(,65,)5,1 /0)9765(, 9*/05682!)3456 8/885(, :*(:(87.8 7,0 */1586/* (,.5,/2 ---2/,=585(,9(,?/*/,9/2(*1 Register by July 5 and save 10%!  ©2013 AFB, All Rights Reserved  Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness , January-February 2013  59
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