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A Natural Disaster is the Effect of a Natural Hazard

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ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL DISASTER A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide). It leads to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability. A natural hazard will hence never result in a
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    ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL DISASTER  A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood,tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide). It leads to financial, environmental or human losses.The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected  population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. Thisunderstanding is concentrated in the formulation: disastersoccur when hazards meet vulnerability. A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. Theterm natural has consequently been disputed because theevents simply are not hazards or disasters without humaninvolvement. A concrete example of the division between anatural hazard and a natural disaster is that the 1906 SanFrancisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas earthquakes area hazard. Ecosystem Disasters triggered by natural hazards,such as tropical cyclones, avalanches and wildfires, can haveadverse environmental consequences. On the other hand,degraded environments can cause or exacerbate the negativeimpacts of disasters. Healthy and well-managed ecosystems-such as coral reefs, mangroves, forests and wetlands- reducedisaster risk by acting as natural buffers or protective barriers, for instance through flood and landslide mitigation and water  filtration and absorption. At the same time, fully-functioningecosystems build local resilience against disasters by sustaininglivelihoods and providing important products to local  populations.    Man made disaster A disastrous event caused directly and principally by one ormore identifiable deliberate or negligent human actions. Alsocalled human-made disaster. Here Compared with naturaldisaster,Humans have turned screwing up the earth into an art form,skillfully wreaking havoc on the land, water and air throughnegligence, lack of concern or even the greedy desire to profit at all costs. corporations are especially adept at causingsevere damage to the environment and human health, Fromknowingly dumping toxic chemicals into a stream wherechildren play to willfully ignoring the potentially devastatingweaknesses of their own facilities, men have managed tocreate destruction on earth that rivals the wrath of MotherNature herself.B hopal Gas Tragedy  The Bhopal also known as Bhopal Gas Tragedy was one of the world's worst industrial catastrophes. It occurred on thenight of December 23, 1984 at theUnion Carbide IndiaLimited(UCIL)pesticideplant inBhopal,Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanategas and other chemicalsfrom the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Estimates vary on the death toll. Theofficial immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deathsrelated to the gas release. Others estimate 3,000 died within    weeks and another 8,000 have since died from gas-relateddiseases. A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partialand approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disablinginjuries.UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of  Union Carbide  Corporation (UCC). Indian Government controlled banks andthe Indian public held 49.1 percent ownership share. In 1994,the Supreme Court of India allowed UCC to sell its 50.9percent share. Union Carbide sold UCIL, the Bhopal plant operator, to Eveready Industries India Limited in 1994. TheBhopal plant was later sold to McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. Dow Chemical Company purchased UCC in 2001. Civil andcriminal cases are pending in the United States District Court,Manhattan and the District Court of Bhopal, India, involvingUCC, UCIL employees, and Warren Anderson, UCC CEO at thetime of the disaster.[5][6] In June 2010, seven ex-employees,including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted inBhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to twoyears imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, themaximum punishment allowed by law. An eighth formeremployee was also convicted, but died before judgment waspassed.    Chernobyl Accident   On 26 April 1986, at 01:23 (UTC+3), reactor four suffered acatastrophic power increase, leading to explosions in its core.This dispersed large quantities of radioactive fuel and corematerials into the atmosphere [15]:73 and ignited the combustiblegraphite moderator. The burning graphite moderator increased the emission of radioactive particles, carried by thesmoke, as the reactor had not been encased by any kind of hardcontainment vessel. The accident occurred during anexperiment scheduled to test a potential safetyemergency corecoolingfeature, which took place during the normal shutdownprocedure. The attempt The Chernobyl power plant had been in operation for twoyears without the capability to ride through the first 60±75seconds of a total loss of electric power, and thus lacked animportant safety feature. The station managers presumablywished to correct this at the first opportunity, which mayexplain why they continued the test even when seriousproblems arose, and why the requisite approval for the testhad not been sought from the Soviet nuclear oversightregulator (even though there was a representative at thecomplex of 4 reactors).The experimental procedure was intended to run as follows:Conditions prior to the accident

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