A Theoretical Model for Analyzing the Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Jitter is used in wireless ad hoc networks to reduce the number of packet collisions and the number of transmissions. This is done by scheduling random back-off for each packet to be transmitted and by piggybacking multiple packets in a single
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   apport   de recherche       I      S      S      N     0     2     4     9   -     6     3     9     9      I      S      R      N      I      N      R      I      A      /      R      R   -   -     7     7     0     1   -   -      F      R    +      E      N      G INSTITUT NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE EN INFORMATIQUE ET EN AUTOMATIQUE  A Theoretical Model for Analyzing the Impact of  Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Juan Antonio CorderoPhilippe JacquetEmmanuel Baccelli N° 7701 Juillet 2011    i  n  r   i  a  -   0   0   6   1   2   8   1   6 ,  v  e  r  s   i  o  n    1   -   3   1    J  u   l    2   0   1   1     i  n  r   i  a  -   0   0   6   1   2   8   1   6 ,  v  e  r  s   i  o  n    1   -   3   1    J  u   l    2   0   1   1  Centre de recherche INRIA Saclay – Île-de-FranceParc Orsay Université4, rue Jacques Monod, 91893 ORSAY Cedex Téléphone : +33 1 72 92 59 00 A Theoretical Model for Analyzing the Impactof Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding overWireless Ad Hoc Networks Juan Antonio CorderoPhilippe JacquetEmmanuel Baccelli Th`eme : COM – Syst`emes communicants´Equipe-Projet HipercomRapport de recherche n °  7701 — Juillet 2011 —24pages Abstract:Key-words:    i  n  r   i  a  -   0   0   6   1   2   8   1   6 ,  v  e  r  s   i  o  n    1   -   3   1    J  u   l    2   0   1   1  A Theoretical Model for Analyzing the Impactof Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding overWireless Ad Hoc Networks R´esum´e :Mots-cl´es :    i  n  r   i  a  -   0   0   6   1   2   8   1   6 ,  v  e  r  s   i  o  n    1   -   3   1    J  u   l    2   0   1   1  A Model for Analyzing the Impact of Jitter-based Techniques on Flooding over Ad Hoc Networks  3 1 Introduction Periodic and quick network-wide packet dissemination, i.e. flooding, is funda-mental to many protocols used in today’s Internet. Several flooding techniquesexist[16,24,14]the simplest one relying on the principle that each node in the network forwards a flooded packet once – the first time it receives this packet.In wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks, flooding is an essential component of some of the most prominent routing protocols, such as OLSR [15], MANETextensions of OSPF[2,5,7] and AODV [13]. Due to the characteristics of the shared wireless medium [4], nodes in ad hocnetworks must often forward flooded packets on the same interface they werereceived on. Upon reception of a flooded packet, nearby nodes are thus likelyto simultaneously forward the packet on the shared wireless medium, and thussystematically cause packet collisions.In order to reduce the number of such collisions in a distributed fashion,random back-off times are independently scheduled by each node before eachtransmission, which aims at avoiding synchronized wireless medium access. Sucha mechanism, called jitter  or jittering  , was standardized by the IETF in RFC5148 [10]. Jitter thus decreases the number of collisions at the price of increaseddelay.During the time a node waits before transmitting, additional flooded packetsmay be received. According to RFC 5148, these packets are then bufferedand piggybacked in the node’s next transmission. This jittering technique alsodecreases the number of transmissions, at the price of longer transmissions, i.e. bigger packets.Unintended jitter has been widely studied, both theoretically and based onexperimental analysis, in the context of real-time services (such as for voicetransport or video streaming) for several networking scenarios, in particular forATM[20,22] or IP wired and wireless networks[17,12,11]. Deliberate jitter was initially used in ALOHA and CSMA, which have beenwidely studied in the literature[23][8]. The optimal jitter range has been stud- ied experimentally in [18], while [3] proposed an analytical model for broad- cast transmissions, taking a network-wide approach to describe the relationshipbetween jitter range and probability of transmission without collision, and toevaluated the use of jitter at different layers.This memorandum studies the use of jitter techniques specified by the IETFin RFC 5148[10], in the context of flooding over multi hop wireless networks.An analytical model is introduced, and several results are derived concerningincurred delays, transmission rates reduction and packet size increase. Theseresults offer a comprehensive view of the impact of jitter on flooding perfor-mance.The remainder of this memorandum is organized as follows. Section2de-scribes in detail the packet jittering technique. This section details the useof jittering techniques for preventing packet collisions in flooding. Section3presents an analytical model of the flooding operation in a link-state router.The impact of random delay in packet forwarding is studied in this analyti-cal framework. Section6validates the results obtained in the previous sectionthrough simulations. Finally, section7concludes the memorandum . RR n °  7701    i  n  r   i  a  -   0   0   6   1   2   8   1   6 ,  v  e  r  s   i  o  n    1   -   3   1    J  u   l    2   0   1   1
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