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  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study The political history of Nigeria shows that since independence in 1960, the military has dominated the political scene, of the eleven heads of governments, only three to date were elected civilians under democratic rule with one heading an interim government that collapsed later. The current political atmosphere of Nigeria is that we are operating a democratic system akin to the presidential system of America based on the principles of election and representation. Therefore, Abraham Lincoln’s (1808 - 1865) definition of democracy will be in place since the concept is key to my research. Lincoln defines democracy as “the government of the people, by the people and for the people”. After the collapse o f  presidential system under Shehu Shagari in the second republic, Olusegun Obasanjo headed another presidential system in the fourth republic (second term). The survival or otherwise of this system depends to a large extent on the adherence by the political elites to the norms and values of the system and principles of accepting whatever might be the verdict of the electorate who are expected to elect candidates of their choice with over thirty registered  parties on ground. The bane of democracy particularly in a developing country like Nigeria is the conflict arising from intra-party squabbles which is the main focus of this research. As long as political party remains an organization of people with different views and ideas who canvas for vote to enable some of its members form a government, it will be too much to expect absolute harmony within the party. This is because by nature each individual is created with his distinct way of thinking or approach to issues. It is only when individuals suppress some of their views and accommodates views from others that peace will be sustained. Since inception of political parties in Nigeria, various political parties have witnessed and are still witnessing intra-party crisis. During the first republic, the intra-party crisis within the Action Group (AG) made Chief Samurel Ladoke Akintola to decamp to  party, Nigeria National Democratic Party. Under the current dispensation too, there has been series of intra-party squabbles. For example, Yaqub (2003:298-301) cited the case of James Ibori, the Delta state governor who escaped death at the hand of assassins by the whiskers on the 4 th  of February, 2001; Ahmed Pategi the then Kwara state chairman of the PDP who was  2 murdered along his police orderly when his car was accosted on his way to Abuja and a soldier and three youth who were killed in the clash over PDP primary elections in Warri. But then what account for this? Against this background, this study is going to concentrate on the intra-party conflict and factionalization in the PDP. My interest here is to discover the nature, causes and consequences of intra-party conflict. 1.2 Statement of the problem  Intra-party conflict has been one of the realities of Nigerian politics and has always  presented a ready-made excuse for military re-entry into politics. Lack of clear-cut ideologies has been one of the main excuses for intra-party conflicts which is followed by insubordination where the leader of the party is not given due recognition. Sit-tight syndrome which African politics has been known for might also be the reason why intra-party conflicts exist up till date. Intra-party conflicts has left African most especially Nigeria politics in a frail state. 1.3 Research Questions This research work attempts to answer the following questions: i.What is the nature and causes of intra-party crisis in the PDP? ii. What are the effects of the PDP’s intra -party crisis on democratization process in Nigeria? iii.How can the crisis be mitigated to avoid the negative effect on democratization process in  Nigeria. 1.4 Objectives of the study   The general objective is to examine the effect of the PDP’s intra -party conflict on the democratization process in Nigeria. However, the specific objectives include the following: i.To examine the nature and causes of intra-  party conflicts in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). ii.To identify the effects of the intra-party conflict affects democratization process in Nigeria. iii.To proffer solutions on how to mitigate the effect of intra-party conflicts not to negatively affect Nigeria’s democratization process.   1.5 Significance of the study  3 The significance of the study is to increase the volume of the existing literatures on intra-party conflicts. Another significance of the study is that it would serve as a useful guide to students of  political science who wish to conduct their researches on intra-party conflicts. Besides, the study would be of paramount importance to any person who is interested in knowing the nature of intra-party conflicts. Furthermore, the recommendations offered in this research would be useful party chieftains of the People’s Democratic Party. 1.6 Research Methodology The method of data collection will consists of both the use of primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will involve the use of interview, while the secondary source will include the use of journals, newspapers and other relevant written materials. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. 1.7 Scope and limitations of the study The area coverage of this research will be the intra-party conflicts and factionalization in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). On the limitation aspect of this research, the study faces some constraints due to inability of getting up to date data by the researcher particularly from Ministry of Information and Communication and Independent National Electoral Commission. Another limitation of this research has to do with the time-consuming nature of the study. A bulk of information was needed for the study which makes it time-consuming. Lastly, the limited financial capability of the researcher was also a problem because of the economic meltdown. 1.8 Definition of terms 1. Political party:  This is an organized group of people sharing common policy  preferences and usually a general ideology positions, which seek to capture political power. 2. Intra-party conflicts:  This simply meant the conflicts arise within a political party.  4 3. Conflict:  Abolade Adeniyi defines conflicts as the struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims and opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals. 4. Democracy:  In this context, democracy has been defined as the system of government whereby the citizen determine their mode of rule directly through participation (direct democracy) or indirectly (representative democracy) by electing government officials to who they grant a mandate to rule. 5. Elites:  Those are the successful persons who rise to the top in every occupation, group and stratum of the society (S.P. Varma, 1996). 6. Conflict resolution:  This is an element of conflict management that involves the  process of intervention to change the course of action. It provides opportunity to alternative  pay-off in a situation of disagreement and restore normalcy in the society by facilitating discussion and placing parties in conflict in a situation which they can choose alternatives  positive decision to resolve differences. 1.9 Organization of chapters This study is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focused on the background (introduction of the study) and shall be followed by statement of the problem, aims and objectives of the study, research question, and significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, research methodology and definition of terms as well as organization of the study. The second chapter centered on the literatures relating to the research topic such as intra-party conflicts, democracy, conflict resolution, political party etc. The third chapter emphasized on the intra-party conflicts and the democratization  process in Nigeria and the cases of intra-party conflicts within the PDP and followed by the collection and analysis of data. The last chapter is designed to proffer summary, recommendations and conclusion REFERENCES  5 Adeniji, A. (2003). Conflict Management and Peaceful coexistence in a Democratic and Peaceful Society. The Journal of Constitutional Development,  3(4) June, 2003. Albert (2003). Inter and intra-party conflicts and future of democracy in Nigeria.In Bash A. Olasupo (Eds.)  Electoral Violence in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives. Lagos Frankard Publishers. Duverger, M. (1972).  Political parties and Pressure groups: A comparative introduction.  Thomas T. Crowell Company USA. Hague, R. (2001). Comparative government and politics: An introduction.  Macmillan London. CHAPTER TWO
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