act-4 aromatic water

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  2. Describe other methods in preparing aromatic water. Aromatic waters maybe prepared by distillation or solution of the aromatic substance, with or without the use of dispersing agents. Basically, the following three methods are commonly used: a. Distillation Method    The distillation method involves the placing of the coarsely ground odoriferous portion of the  plant or drug from which the aromatic water is to be prepared in a suitable still, with sufficient  purified water. Most of the volume of water is then distilled. The excess oil collected with the distillate rises to the top of the aqueous product and is removed. This is the common method of  preparation of aromatic waters although it is slow and expensive one, e.g. Strong Rose Water NF. b. Solution Method    This method is simpler, quicker and more economical as compared to distillation method. In this method, aromatic water is prepared by intermittently shaking 2 ml (if liquid) or 2 g (if solid) of the volatile substance with 1000 ml of purified water in suitable container for a period of 15 minutes. After the period of agitation the mixture is set aside for12 hours or longer to permit the excess oil and the solid substance to settle. Without further agitation the mixture is passed through a wetted filter paper and purified water added as needed to bring the volume of the filtrate up to the prescribed quantity. c. Alternative Solution Method    By this method, the volatile oil or suitably comminute aromatic solid is thoroughly incorporated with 15 g of powdered talc and 1000 ml of purified water is added to this mixture. The resulting slurry is thoroughly agitated several times for the period of 30 minutes and then filtered. Powdered talc works as filter aid which renders the formulation clearer and also as distributing agent for the aromatic substances that ultimately increases the surface area of aromatic substances exposed to the solvent action of water. The distributing agents should be inert in nature. 3.   Rationalize the following procedures done in the preparation of aromatic waters.    Vigorous shaking of the volatile substance with purified water.    Vigorous shaking is aplied because most of the aromatic substances in the preparation of aromatic waters have very low solubility in water and even though water may be saturated, its concentration of aromatic material is still rather small.    Letting the solution stand for 12 hours.    After the period of agitation the mixture is set aside for 12 hours or longer to permit the excess oil and the solid substance to settle.    Filtering the solution    This is to make the solution clear if necessary. In the preparattion of Camphor water, filtration removes the calcium phosphate and excess of camphor from the solution.    Addition of alcohol to camphor crystals    trituration with alcohol, renders it more readily pulverize by destroying the tenacity with which the particles of camphor adhere together. The alcohol acts as a distributing agent. 4. Give and define the pharmaceutical use of the following ingredients used in preparing aromatic waters: A. Volatile oil/ volatile substance    Aromatic waters are saturated solutions of volatile oils or other volatile substances. Naturally, they  possess the taste and odour similar to that of the plant or volatile substance they are prepared from. Thus volatile oils or volatile substances acts a flavorant of the aromatic water. Volatile oils are also the active ingredient in the preparation on aromatic waters, which means that it the one that  produces the chemical or biological effect of the aromatic water in. B. Purified water     The purified water is used as the solvent in this preparation. Wherein the volatile oils are dissolved using purified water in order to make aromatic waters. C. Talc (alternate solution method)    In the alternative solution method of preparing an aromatic water, powdered talc is incorporated in the preparation. This acts as a filter aid which renders the formulation more clear and it is also a distributing agent for the aromatic substances by increasing the surface area of aromatic substances exposed to the solvent action of water. D. Ethanol (alternate solution method with trituration with intervention)    Many volatile oils contain aromatic and non-aromatic part, wherein the aromatic portion is much more soluble in a weak alcohol such as ethanol. Hence, ethanol is used as a solvent. It also acts as a preservative to the preparation, which help prolong the shelf life of aromatic waters. 5. Give the synonym, and enumerate and define the (A.) Pharmacologic use/s, and (B.) Pharmaceutic use/s of the aromatic waters that you have prepared. Peppermint Water Synonyms : Aqua Methae, Mentha Piperita Water Pharmacologic Uses It is used for the symptomatic relief of minor digestive complaints such as dyspepsia, flatulence and stomach cramps. It is proposed that it relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle and attenuates contractile responses by reducing the influx of extracellular calcium ions. Pharmaceutic Uses a.   carminative - intended to either prevent formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitate the expulsion of said gas, thereby combatting flatulence.  b.   analgesics - for the relief of joint and muscle pain. c.   Anti-flatulent - used for the symptomatic relief of minor digestive complaints such as dyspepsia, flatulence and stomach cramps, based on traditional use only. Cinnamon Water Synonyms:  Saigon Cinnamon, Aqua Cinnamon, Ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Pharmacologic Uses May help reduced insulin resistance in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Moreover, it can also  boost immunity through its antiviral, antimicrobial and anti-fungal properties that helps reduce the chances of developing respiratory orders and heart problems. Pharmaceutic Uses a.   Analgesics  –   used to reduced severe pain in women with dysmenorrhea  b.   Antimicrobial - inhibits nitric oxide production implicated in the inflammatory disease process and also demonstrated inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis c.   Anti-inflamatory - shown to exert in vitro activity (inhibition pf bacterial endotoxin) against some common human pathogens as well as fungicidal activity against plant pathogens.    Camphor Water Synonyms: Pharmacologic Uses It mildly excites the circulation, dilating the superficial vessels and slightly increasing the cardiac output. It also directly excites cerebrum. It is also used for its calming influence in hysteria, nervousness, neuralgia and for serious diarrhea. When applied externally, camphor dilates the vessels of the skin, and is used as a rubefacient and mild counter-irritant in rheumatisms, sprains bronchitis and in inflammatory conditions. Campor has great value in colds, chills, and in all inflammatory complaints. Pharmaceutic Uses a.   rubefacient - camphor dilates the vessels of the skin  b.   anti-inflammatory - mild counter-irritant in rheumatisms, sprains bronchitis c.   carminative - used to relieve flatulence or abdominal pain or distention 6. Describe the pharmaceutical incompatibilities of aromatic waters. The difficulty encountered in the compounding of prescriptions containing aromatic waters is due to a “salting out” action of certain ingredients, such as very soluble salts in the volatile principle of the aromatic water. In such cases, a replacement of a part of the aromatic water with purified water is permissible when it has no other function than that of vehicle or a dilution of the product with a suitable increase in dosage is indicated. Therefore sometimes talc is added as a distributing agent. Aromatic water deteriorates with time therefore:    should be made in small quantities.    Should be protected from intense light and excessive heat by storing in air tight, light resistant containers.    should be discarded, if they become cloudy or otherwise deteriorate. 7. Give the complete botanical source of the following aromatic substances: A.   Peppermint oil- Peppermint (Mentha piperita) B.   Rose oil- Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.), Alba rose (Rosa alba L.), Musk rose (Rosa moschata Herrm.) C.   Camphor crystals-Camphor (CInnamomum Camphora) D.   Cinnamon oil- True cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) E.   Orange oil- Orange (Citrus sinesis) 9.Describe the proper packaging and storage of aromatic waters. Storage conditions aromatic waters deteriorate with time and hence should be made in small quantities and protected from intense light and excessive heat. They should be stored in airtight, light resistance container in cool place.  Aromatic waters should be protected from strong light and preferably stored in containers which are stoppered with purified cotton to allow access of some air but to exclude dust. Specific labeling requirement   the label should have the caution ‘protect from sun light’ with red ink due to the presence of volatile constituent in the preparation. This caution is more important in case of chloroform water as chloroform gets converted into poisonous phosgene gas. References:    British Encyclopedia. (N.D.). aromatic waters. Retrieved from: hhtps://    Sombrano, E. (2019). Aromatic waters - Liniments. Retrieved from:    Metha piperita (U.S.P.)-Peppermint. (n.d.) Retrieved from:    Y.S. Agaoglu (2000) Rose Oil Industry and the Production of Oil Rose (Rosa Damascena Mill.) in Turkey, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. Retrieved from:    How to use camphor safely: Benefits and precautions (2018, June 19) Retrieved from:    Cinnamon essential oil (leaf) information (n.d.) Retrieved from:    Orange Essential Oil (n.d.) Retrieved from:    Alberta, G. (2015). Peppermint Oil. Retrieved from    Aquino, R. (2013). Aromatic Waters. Retrieved from    Martindale (2018). Peppermint Water BP 1973. Retrieved from     NA. (ND). Aromatic Waters. Retrieved from    Walters Kluwer Health (2019. Cinnamon. Retrieved from    Tacio. (1970, January 1). Aromatic Waters. Retrieved from    file:///C:/Users/Lg/Downloads/60df09fbc0e95a8d56ddbe5da179f829-srcinal.pdf       Adijoansyah. Nd. Aqueous solutions. Retrived from:   

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Sep 10, 2019
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