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  Lashawn HollidayMs. DecHonors EnglishMay 8 th , 2016Affirmatie Action is fair !My dreams "ecame a reality as a res#lt of my $tanford ed#cation. My father who grew #% in &irmingham, Ala"ama, and my mother, a natie of Little 'oc(, Ar(ansas, neer finished high school. )hey grew #% in a segregated $o#th that offered few o%%ort#nities and many o"stacles for African Americans. * grew #% in Mercedes, +alifornia, in an enironment where many of my %eers iewed merely staying alie and getting a o" as a s#ccessf#l co#rse in life. -ith a %#sh from my %arents, * was determined to "e the first in my family to attend college. -ith hel% from my co#nselors, * discoered $tanford. -itho#t affirmatie action, * wo#ld neer hae a%%lied to, and certainly wo#ld not hae attended $tanford /+harles . gletree r., Affirmatie Action. Affirmatie action is the %rod#ct of the ciil rights era, a time where AfricanAmerica fo#ght to lie in a society, where they were not #dged "y the color of their s(in, "#t thecontent of their character. )hey fo#ght to lie as e3#al citi4ens in the co#ntry of their "irth. )hro#gh "old leaders s#ch as, Martin L#ther 5ing and interest gro#%s s#ch as the ational Association for the Adancement of +olored 7eo%le, African Americans d#ring the late 190s thro#gh 160s carried o#t a %rolonged cam%aign of %assie resistance, challenging the racial e%idemic that was so %realent in the American society. As adances in the ciil right moement heighten, schools and #niersities "ecame actiely desegregate, and %#"lic facilities were moing more towards integration. Een tho#gh schools were desegregated there was still an eer looming as%ect of instit#tionali4ed racism that had to "e addressed. *n that eent, an e:ec#tie order was iss#ed "y 7resident ohn ;. 5ennedy, which stated that the goernment contractors hadto ta(e, !affirmatie action to ens#re that a%%licants are em%loyed and ed#cated<witho#t regards to race, creed, color or national srcins. +onersely, it was act#ally 5ennedy=s s#ccessor, former 7resident Lyndon &. ohnson who is credited for im%lementing a %lethora of the ciil rights legislation, as well as the landmar( +iil 'ight Act of 16>, that %rohi"ited all forms of discrimination. *n his Howard ?niersity commencement s%eech in 169 Lyndon &. ohnson is 3#oted for saying, !@o# do not ta(e a man who for years has "een ho""led "y chains, li"erate him, "ring him to the starting line of a race, saying yo# are free to com%ete with all the others, and still #stly "eliee yo# hae "een com%letely fair. )his it is not eno#gh #st to o%en the gates of o%%ort#nity. All o#r citi4ens m#st hae the a"ility to wal( thro#gh those gates. erall, Affirmatie action was one of ohnson=s most "old and greatest society initiaties, which officially made into law in 169 "y E:ec#tie rder 112>6, which re3#ires federal contractors to ta(e affirmatie action to ens#re that %erson/s of color were entitled to the same em%loyment o%%ort#nities as whites. &oth Lyndon &. ohnson and ohn ;. 5ennedy contried that Affirmatie Action as a%%lying to em%loyment %ractices, "#t affirmatie action soon made its way to ?.$. colleges, later the Military and %riate "#siness in efforts to "ring a"o#t a direct reflection of ?.$. demogra%hics. Howeer, the looming s#%%ort for Affirmatie action %olicies  %realently wanes, es%ecially amongst +a#casians, "eca#se the %olicies s#%%ort 3#otas, and  %romotes minority candidates in hiring, admissions, or awarding %rocesses, at the e:%ense of more 3#alified whites. -ithin the last 0 years or so, the %ractice of affirmatie action has  recently "een seen at the ang#ard of intense de"ate, %rom%ting a %lethora of high %rofiled co#rt cases, s#ch as ?niersity of +alifornia . &a((e, holding that that a state ?niersity co#ld hae weighed race or ethnic "ac(gro#nd as one element in admissions "#t co#ld not set aside %laces for mem"ers of %artic#lar racial gro#%BsC. )here are seeral sides and o%inions an indiid#al can hold when as(ed a"o#t Affirmatie action %olicies. *n s#%%ort, %eo%le say Affirmatie action hel%s minorities, enco#rages diersity, and that it=s needed in higher ed#cation. Merely, %eo%le who denote the ca#se, says that Affirmatie action %olicy harms minorities, as well as whites. Affirmatie action is contri"#ting to racial e3#ality in o#r co#ntry, "eca#se it acts as a ste%%ing stone for recently disadantage gro#% as a way to re%ay for o%%ression. Affirmatie action %olicies are of al#e to its intended "eneficiaries, "eca#se it was createto gie e3#al o%%ort#nity "y hel%ing those indiid#als with a disadantage. &#t contrary to  %o%#lar "eliefs, African Americans are s#r%risingly not the sole, in other words they aren=t een the %rime "eneficiaries= receiing affirmatie action. 7eo%le from all forms of life hae "enefitedfrom these %olicies, which gie o%%ort#nities that are hard to o"tain a "it more leerage in the  %rocess, to target #nder re%resented comm#nities. !)hese gro#%s incl#de -oman, &lac(s, His%anics, Asians, 7acific *slanders, and American *ndians. ther #nderre%resented gro#%s incl#de eterans and disa"les eterans. According to the ?nited $tates La"or De%artment, the  %rimary "eneficiaries of affirmatie action are white woman. )he De%artment of La"or estimatedthat 6 million woman wor(ers are in higher occ#%ational classification today than they wo#ld hae "een witho#t affirmatie action %olicies /+ $tate ?niersity Affirmatie Action in Em%loyment )raining. At a glance, indiid#als can=t hel% who they are, their "ac(gro#nd and generally where they come from. o one is g#arantee a"sol#te s#ccess in America, "eca#se it de%ends on how someone meas#res what s#ccess is. &#t, affirmatie action hel%s and gie said  %eo%le with a disadantage from "irth a "oost in %osition where they see( higher ed#cation and or em%loyment o%%ort#nities. enerally s%ea(ing, minorities are mostly the ones receiing  "enefits deriing from affirmatie action %olicies. Minority st#dents #s#ally come from homes with a lower income and few ed#cational s(ills, so they tend to foster those al#es, "eca#se it=s what they=e "een ta#ght and don=t (now otherwise. As a res#lt, minorities are somewhat destined to fail, "eca#se they hae a lac( of motiation to do "etter, and th#s hae fewer o%%ort#nities to higher %osition, "eca#se of their disadantage #%"ringing, #nli(e some white st#dents. ot to say, minorities are not ro"#st mem"ers of society, "#t they are #st as ca%a"le as s#cceeding as the ne:t white indiid#al"#t d#e to that fact of the disadantage the may not hae the same 3#alifications, so affirmatie action ens#res to een the %laying field for st#dents and f#t#re em%loyersFem%loyees. !)hose who claim affirmatie action %olicies are no longer needed  "eliee that the field has "een leeled. &#t they ignore alarming fig#res. *n 200G, only 1,>>9 African Americans receied 7hDs in the ?nited $tates. D#ring the same year 2>,68> whites wereawarded 7hDs in the ?nited $tates /+harles . gletree r. Affirmatie Action. )here is still constant %rogression and wor( to still to "e done with it comes to e3#aling the %laying field, and the goal is to eent#ally eliminate affirmatie action. *n "rief, Affirmatie action %olicies are  "eneficial to indiid#al with a disadantage see(ing higher o%%ort#nities. *n order for ed#cational enironments and wor(%lace atmos%heres to hae a more diersesetting, e3#i%%ed with %eo%le from all ethnic "ac(gro#nds, colleges and "#sinesses #se  affirmatie action %rograms to incl#de %reio#sly e:cl#ded gro#%s. *n that order, it is im%ortant to ta(e diersity into acco#nt, "eca#se in an ed#cational setting indiid#als can learn from the wide ariety of different c#lt#ral al#es and o%inions, in order to im%roe critical thin(ing s(ills and intellect#al motiation of all st#dent. *deally, diersity draws an e:cess of talents and different ideas from of sectors of the world=s %o%#lation, which co#ld "e a%%lica"le to %eers in increasing glo"al economy. !Harard welcomes st#dents from across the co#ntry and all oer theworld, with dierse "ac(gro#nds and farranging talents and interest. n aerage we hae a"o#t >0,000 who a%%ly, only 2,000 get in. )o say, 11.6 %ercent of the class wo#ld "e African American, 21.1 %ercent Asian American, 1.0 %ercent His%anicFLatino, and 1.9 %ercent atie American /Harard ?niersity, Admissions and ;inancial Aid.
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