Agha 2007 Recombinant Selves in Mass Mediated Spacetime

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  Recombinant selves in mass mediated spacetime Asif Agha  * Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, 323 University Museum, 3260 South Street,Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398, United States Abstract Bakhtin proposed that novelistic ‘‘chronotopes’’ (depictions of place-time-and-personhood)implicitly frame readers’ acts of construing a novel’s plot and explicit content in ways that potentiallytransform everyday chronotopes presupposed by readers. Generalizing from the case of novels (andother genres of written discourse), this article develops an account of ‘‘cultural chronotopes,’’ namelydepictions of place-time-and-personhood to which social interactants orient when they engage eachother through discursive signs of any kind. Particular attention is given to a chronotope termed‘‘mass mediated spacetime’’ and to a feature of subjectivity (the formation of ‘‘recombinant selves’’)characteristic of the mass-mediated public sphere. The chronotopic phenomena explored in the sevenaccompanying articles (this issue) are discussed in the light of these proposals.   2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords:  Mass media; Subjectivity; Social relations; Chronotopes; Public sphere In taking up the comparative study of chronotopic representations, the articles in thiscollection show that entextualized projections of time cannot be isolated from those of locale and personhood. Time is not a semiotic isolate. It is textually diagrammed and ideo-logically grasped in relation to, and through the activities of, locatable selves. Since thispoint is already implicit in Bakhtin’s account of the  novelistic  chronotope, making it expli-cit is all the more important for the more general case of   cultural   chronotopes with whichthese articles are concerned. 0271-5309/$ - see front matter    2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.doi:10.1016/j.langcom.2007.01.001 * Tel.: +1 215 898 7461; fax: +1 215 898 7462. E-mail address:  asifagha@sas.upenn.eduLanguage & Communication 27 (2007) 320–335 LANGUAGE&COMMUNICATION  A chronotope is a semiotic representation of time and place peopled by certain socialtypes. The case of the novelistic chronotope (Bakhtin, 1981) is the special case wherethe representation is formulated by a literary text. By virtue of its mass circulation a nov-elistic chronotope is also a mass mediated chronotope, but this too is a special case. Let usconsider the general case first.Every chronotopic representation has two essential aspects. It links representations of time to those of locale and personhood. And it is experienced within a participation frame-work: The act of producing or construing a chronotopic representation itself has a chro-notopic organization (of time, place and personhood) which may be transformed by thatact. The transformation may be more or less palpable, more or less significant, but italways unfolds one participation framework at a time. In the case of mass mediated chro-notopes, the number of participation frameworks in which the chronotope unfolds (andhence the number of participants acquainted with its depictions) is sufficiently large thatthe notion of a ‘mass’ of persons becomes sociologically relevant. 1. Forms of personhood and participation in the chronotope Since the term  chronotope  combines etyma that denote time ( chronos ) and space( topos ) it is essential to see at the outset that Bakhtin’s conception of the chronotope(even of the  novelistic  chronotope) involves more than depictions of time and space. Achronotopic depiction formulates a sketch of personhood in time and place; and, thesketch is enacted and construed within a participation framework (or, in the mass med-iated cases, through diverse participation frameworks semiotically linked by its textualform, as I now show.)Bakhtin (1981) observes that ‘[a]lthough abstract thought can, of course, think timeand space as separate entities’ (p. 243), discursive textuality invariably unites them intwo concrete ways. First, a novelistic chronotope locates time within a larger unity: Itlinks depictions of time to those of space, and to a concrete ‘image of man’, an imagethat is ‘always intrinsically chronotopic’ (p. 85). Bakhtin is quite clear that the conceptof chronotope applies to ‘other areas of culture’ (p. 84) as well, though he does not dis-cuss them in great detail. Second, towards the end of his essay, Bakhtin explores (whatwe now call) participation frameworks by linking the novelistic world to its interactionaltext. He does this by considering relations between ‘the world of the author’ and ‘theworld of the listeners and readers’; these, he says, ‘are chronotopic as well’ (p. 252).The novel mediates a connection between two participant roles, ‘author’ and ‘listener-reader’; the novelistic chronotope connects the world of the author to the ‘chronotopicsituation’ of diverse listeners–readers due to the physical materiality of its textualform—and, we might add, due to dependent features, such as its intersubjective perceiv-ability (audibility, visibility), its physical reproducibility across media (vellum, paper,speech), its convertibility into different experienceable formats (bound book, newspaperserial, theatrical performance, radio broadcast, film), its historical transmissibilitythrough a series of recensions, its physical transportability (and thus sale and consump-tion) across geographic locales—thus semiotically linking moments of experience indiverse participation frameworks (unfolding consecutively or sequentially, near or far)to each other in space and time.Pressing this argument to its limit (to the question of ‘the boundaries of chronotopicanalysis’) Bakhtin concludes that all semiotic representations are chronotopic because they A. Agha / Language & Communication 27 (2007) 320–335  321  occur in space and time (and, we might add, within participation frameworks). His reason-ing is this: In order for ‘meanings’ to be experienced by persons a representation ‘musttake on the  form of a sign  that is audible and visible’ to participants. Insofar as represen-tations have a ‘temporal-spatial expression’—that is, must occur as sign-tokens in spaceand time in order to be experienced—they connect the chronotopes they depict to thechronotopes in which they are experienced. Hence ‘every entry into the sphere of meaningsis accomplished only through the gates of the chronotope’. This point remains elusiveunless we focus on the second feature of chronotopic representations noted above. Thegateway is a participation framework.The participation framework of a representation may be small or large, depending onsemiotic medium and genre. In the case of dyadic conversation it consists of two people. Inthe case of a TV broadcast, it often consists of millions of people who form its mass med-iated audience; here the participation framework is geographically dispersed but semioti-cally unified by the audience’s orientation to a common televisual message at the momentof reception. Such moments can also be linked to each other through communicativechains into processes which, through the inter-linkage of smaller scale semiotic encountersand participation frameworks, yield larger scale sociohistorical trends (Agha, 2007, pp.64–83).The circulation of chronotopic representations through artifacts and genres has obvi-ous social consequences. For instance, a chronotopic model of a period can come to beaccepted by many persons in that period, but resisted by others; or it may formulate anofficial picture in some genres, yet count as raw material for humor in others. The dis-pute between Darwinians and Creationists is a dispute about  which  competing chrono-tope (‘evolutionary history’ or ‘biblical time’) better accounts for the place of partiesto this dispute within the Order of Things; each chronotope informs an official pictureof the world (linked to canonical texts and institutions) in one circle, and is an objectof derision (and sometimes rage) in the other. More generally, whether or not a chrono-topic model is widely known, is felt to be legitimate, is uniformly accepted by thoseacquainted with it, or whether it fractionates into positionally entrenched variants, theprocess as a whole proceeds  as a social process  through modes and moments of partici-patory access to the model itself (i.e., through semiotic activities that unfold within par-ticipation frameworks) and through forms of alignment to  that  model (or variant) towhich participants orient in some modality of response (registering uptake, maintainingits presuppositions, countering its features, proposing alternatives, etc.) through theirown semiotic activities. Chronotopic contrasts become most vivid when they arevoiced—as in the dispute between Darwinians and Creationists—as contrasts amonginstitutionalized forms of life. 2. Contrast, unity and ideology The concept of chronotope isof vanishingly little interest when extracted from aframe of contrast. And, it finds its most pressing utility in the problematics of cross-frame alignment(discussed below). When extracted from a frame of contrast, a chronotope is a ‘possibleworld’. But every utterance projects a deictically configured possible world (Agha, 2007,pp. 37–54). It is the re-configuration of such projections into higher-level textual uni-ties—and, in turn, their habituation and ideological codification into genres, practices,‘fashions of speaking’ (Whorf, 1956; Silverstein, 2000), and the institutionalized forms of  322  A. Agha / Language & Communication 27 (2007) 320–335  life to which these give rise—that provide the most sociologically salient frames of contrast. 1 The dominant frame ofcontrastinBakhtin’s account isthecontrastbetweenknown gen-resofthenovel. 2 Buthealsocontrastsnovelisticchronotopeswiththechronotopesofevery-day life. For instance, he argues that, through his literary treatment of the human body,Rabelaisseekstodisaggregatetheideologicalchronotopesofthemedievalworld(‘thefeudaland religious world view’, and, in particular, ‘those remnants of a transcendent world viewstill present in it’) and to replace it, in the space of novelistic depiction, with ‘a new chrono-tope for a new, whole and harmonious man’ (p. 168) by locating the human body in ‘a newand unexpected matrix of objects and phenomena’ (p. 175) and, thus, by making availablenew chronotopic formulations to readers in subsequent periods of European history.Here the frame of contrast is not a contrast between novelistic chronotopes but a contrastbetween chronotopes of the novel and those articulated through everyday representations,whether these be the folkloristic chronotopes presupposed (by Rabelais and his readers) inthe historical period of novelistic writing, or the cultural chronotopes made available by thenovel and subsequently assimilated as forms of common sense (into non-hierarchical, non-transcendent, post-religious outlooks) in later European history. It is this contrast betweeneveryday and novelistic chronotopes to which Bakhtin alludes in the opening sentence of hisessay—wherehespeaksofliteratureas‘assimilatingrealhistoricaltimeandspace’andalsoof articulating ‘actual historical persons in such a time and space’ (p. 85)—and to which hereturns towardstheend of the essay in passages like thefollowing:‘Out of theactualchrono-topes of our world (which serve as the source of representation) emerge the reflected and cre-atedchronotopesoftheworldrepresentedinthework(inthetext)’(p.253);andthelatter,wemight add, once created, inform the ‘chronotopic situations’ of those exposed to the text, asframes of reference for subsequent—often ideologically saturated—forms of life. This pointcan, of course, be generalized beyond the novel to  any  form of entextualized representation.Chronotopic depictions are formulated by a vast variety of text-patterns and genres inevents of discursive interaction. Although such depictions draw on ideas of place, timeand personhood that are  presupposed   by current participants, they contrast with them asdepictions, frequently transforming and re-ordering the presuppositions with which theycontrast. The difference is most frequently experienced by language users as figure-ground 1 That is, the level of lexemic deixis, while analytically necessary, is by no means analytically sufficient foruncovering and explicating chronotopic formulations in text. For instance, an obvious reason that chronotopicformulations link time to place and personhood is that temporal deictics routinely co-occur in utterances withplace and person deictics. Bakhtin himself focuses extensively on place, time and person deixis in his discussion of the novelistic chronotope. However, more elaborate and coherent patterns of chronotopic formulation emergethrough other levels of textual organization, such as patterns of textuality through which event-episodes aremetrically configured into ‘plot’ and ‘story’ structures having distinctive types of recipient-design, and throughforms of ideological reanalysis (Bakhtin speaks of different novelistic genres as having distinct ‘ideologies’)whereby metrically configured text patterns are linked to normative participation frameworks and given unifiedgeneric meanings. In the case of cultural chronotopes more broadly (i.e., leaving the novel aside as a special case),forms of deixis are re-configured into chronotopic formulations by both text-patterns and cultural ideologies, as Ishow in my discussion of the articles by Davidson and Lempert below. 2 By appeal to this frame of contrast, Bakhtin distinguishes a number of major novelistic chronotopes,contrasting them with each other by contrasting their temporal aspects (adventure time, everyday time,biographic time), their spatialized landscapes (the alien world, the exotic), the principal sites and settings wherecharacters encounter each other (the road, the salon, the castle), and the forms of subjectivity with which they areendowed (a changeless public persona, an inner private life, a biographically developmental self, etc.). A. Agha / Language & Communication 27 (2007) 320–335  323
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