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Akapulko

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  Akapulko Name: Scientific Name: Description of Plant: Uses: Folkloric - The seeds used for intestinal parasitism. - Tincture from leaves reported to be purgative. - Decoction of leaves and flowers for cough and as expectorant in bronchitis and asthma. Also used as astringent. - Crushed leaves and juice extract used for ringworm, scabies, eczema, tinea infections, itches, insect bites, herpes. Preparation for a specific use: Pound enough fresh leaves; express (squeeze out) the juice and apply on the affected skin morning and evening. Improvement should be noticed after 2 - 3 weeks of treatment. - Decoction of leaves and flowers used as mouthwash in stomatitis. - In  Africa, the boiled leaves are used for hypertension. - In South American, used for skin diseases, stomach problems, fever, asthma, snake bites and venereal disease. - In Thailand, leaves are boiled and drunk to hasten delivery. - As laxative, boil 10-15 dried leaves in water, taken in the morning and bedtime. - For wound treatment, leaves are boiled and simmered to one-third volume, then applied to affected areas twice daily. - In India, plant used as cure for poisonous bites and for venereal eruptions. - In Nigeria locally used for treatment of ringworm and parasitic skin diseases. - In the  Antilles, Reunion, and Indo-China, plant is used as hydrogogue, sudorific, and diuretic. - Decoction of roots used for tympanites. - Wood used as alterative. - Sap of leaves used as antiherpetic. - Leaf tincture or extract used as purgative. - Juice of leaves mixed with lime-juice for ringworm. - Leaves taken internally to relieve constipation. - Strong decoction of leaves and flowers used as wash for eczema. - Infusion of leaves and flowers used for asthma and bronchitis. - Strong decoction of leaves used as abortifacient. - Seeds used as vermifuge.   Ointment preparation  (1) Wash fresh leaves thoroughly and cut in small pieces. (2) Add one glass of cooking oil or coconut oil to one glass of cut  fresh leaves. (3) Fry until crispy. (4) Remove from the heat; strain. (5) Cut 2 white candles (Esperma No. 5) into small pieces. (6) In a cooking pot, pour the strained oil together with the candle pieces; stir until the candle has melted. (7) Pour the mixture into a clean container; cover when cool. (8) Apply the ointment to affected areas twice daily. (Source: <www.doh.gov.ph/pitahc>)   Considerations:   Saponin acts as a laxative and expels intestinal parasites. ã Its fungicide property derives from chrysophanic acid.   ã Plant considered alterative, astringent, abortifacient, aperient, expectorant, purgative, sudorific, hydragogue, diuretic, vermifuge.   Botany      Akapulko is a coarse, erect, branched shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and 40 to 60 centimeters long, with orange rachis on stout branches. Each leaf has 16 to 28 leaflets, 5 to 15 centimeters in length, broad and rounded at the apex, with a small point at the tip. Leaflets gradually increase in size from the base towards the tip of the leaf. Inflorescences are terminal and at the axils of the leaves, in simple or panicled racemes, and 10 to 50 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow, about 4 centimeters inn diameter, at the axils of thin, yellow, oblong, concave bracts which are 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. Pod is rather straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 centimeters long and 15 millimeters wide. On both sides of the pods there is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pod contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.  Distribution   - Abundant throughout the Philippines in settled areas at low and medium altitudes. - Occasionally planted as ornamental or for its medicinal properties. - Introduced from tropical America; now pantropic. Additional botanical info ã Propagated rapidly by seeds (disp ersed by waters) or stem cuttings. Basal stem may produce coppices (suckers). ã Seeds from mature pods can be collected during the season and immediately planted or stored for six months. Parts utilized   Leaves, seeds, and flowers.   Studies  ã  Antifungal / Leaves and Bark: Crude ethanol and aqueous extract of Cassia alata  (GELENGGANG BESAR) leaves and bark were tested for antifungal activity in vitro against three fungi  –    Aspergillus fumigatus , Microsporum canis  and Candida albicans . The study showed the C. alata to be effective against C. albicans, confirming its potential as a natural source of antifungal remedy. (1) Study evaluated the safety and efficacy of C. alata leaves in the management of fungal infectious diseases. Results showed dose dependent antifungal activity of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts on five selected clinical isolates of pathogen fungi. Cassia alata showed greater antifungal activity against some human pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of Candida albicans, Microsporum canus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was better than ketoconazzole 200 mg as control. (55) ã  Anthraquinone / Antifungal: Study yielded an anthraquinone high-yielding Senna alata leaf extract with antifungal activity against dermatophytes  –  Tricophyton rubrum, T mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. (7) ã  Antidermatophytic: Study of ethanolic extract of CA leaves showed high activity against various species of dermatophytic fungi but low activity against non-dermatophytic fungi. (4) In a study using methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts to screen for phytochemicals, antibacterial and antifungal activities, the methanolic extract showed the highest activity.   ã  Analgesic: (1) Ethanol and hexane extract of Senna alata leaves showed analgesic effect in mice. (2) Study of leaf extract of C. alata  in mice showed analgesic activity. Fifty milligrams of kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside was equivalent to 100 mg of the extract.   ã  Phytochemistry / Antimicrobial Activity: (1) Nigerian studies showed activity of the methanol leaf extract on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris. Secondary metabolites were identified (saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds, eugenol, glycosides and anthraquinones). (2) Study of methanolic extracts of flowers, leaves, stem and root barks of CA showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with the flower extract the most effective.   ã  Antiseptic Soap:  A Nigerian study on Cassia alata-based soap exhibited high antimicrobial potency against Staph aureus, the organism most widely encountered and undesirable of the normal skin flora. At a reduction time of 5 minutes, the herbal soap made a 94.78% reduction of the microbial load, findings of economic, industrial and medical significance. (4) ã  Anti-Inflammatory:  (1) Leaf extract of S. alata showed anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of histamine secretion. (2) Anti

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Sep 11, 2019

6th_Tamil

Sep 11, 2019
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