An Interactive Laboratory of Literatures. From the Early Romantics to the Victorian Age

Graeme Thomson Silvia Maglioni Literary HYPERLINKS An Interactive Laboratory of Literatures From the Early Romantics to the Victorian Age 2 DVD-ROM Graeme Thomson Silvia Maglioni Literary HYPERLINKS An
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Graeme Thomson Silvia Maglioni Literary HYPERLINKS An Interactive Laboratory of Literatures From the Early Romantics to the Victorian Age 2 DVD-ROM Graeme Thomson Silvia Maglioni Literary HYPERLINKS An Interactive Laboratory of Literatures From the Early Romantics to the Victorian Age 2 Literary Hyperlinks An Interactive Laboratory of Literatures A history of literature that brings literature to life through a system of LINKS between texts, films, music, visual arts and an extension to hypermedia and the world wide web. Time Zones: a broad overview of the history of English literature divided into chronological units with a special focus on daily life Links: a system of literary links providing multiple thematic pathways through the books Hotlinks: a wide range of interdisciplinary sections from science to music to comparative literature Cinefile: a feature which gives students a deeper appreciation of film as an art form, with clips and activities included on the accompanying DVD-ROM Round-up and Focus on FCE: a final test to consolidate what has been learnt in each unit and FCE-style activities focused on some of the main themes of each Time Zone 2 FROM LINKS TO HYPERLINKS: Multimedia and beyond a DVD-ROM including: all the clips taken from the key films appearing in the book synopsis of each film and the director s biography interactive activities on each film clip recordings of the most important literary passages Multimedia Labs: thematic pathways connecting the literature of each epoch to contemporary art, music and film 3 Contents TIME ZONE 4 The Romantic Age ( ) 6 1 The Age of Revolutions 8 The Industrial Revolution 9 The French Revolution 10 Cinefile: L Anglaise et le duc 11 Art Link: Turner 12 The Napoleonic Wars 14 2 Literature in the Romantic Age 18 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Isn t it Romantic? 18 Poetic visions 19 Hotlink Music: Lieder 20 Precursors of Romanticism: Gray and Blake 20 Hotlink Philosophy: The sublime 21 Characteristics of Romanticism 23 The first generation of Romantic poets 23 The second generation of Romantic poets 23 Hotlink Cult. Studies: The lay of the land 25 Thomas Gray 27 Hotlink From Brit Lit to It Lit: Foscolo 29 Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard 29 Art Link: Thomas Hirschhorn 32 William Blake 34 Infant Joy 37 Infant Sorrow 38 Art Link: Blake 40 London 42 Hotlink Philosophy: Georges Bataille 44 The Lamb 45 The Tyger 47 Cinefile: Dead Man 50 William Wordsworth 51 Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge 54 Art Link: Constable 56 I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud 58 Hotlink Big Science: Luke Howard 60 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Jamaica Kincaid 62 Three Years She Grew in Sun and Shower 64 She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways 67 Hotlink Music: Talking Heads 69 Samuel Taylor Coleridge 71 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Extract 1 74 Extract 2 77 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Baudelaire 80 Kubla Khan 83 Word matters: Plain speaking 86 George Gordon Byron 87 Lost in Translation? Don Juan 89 Don Juan 90 Percy Bysshe Shelley 93 Ozymandias 95 Hotlink From Brit Lit to It Lit: Leopardi 97 England in Ode to the West Wind 102 John Keats 107 La Belle Dame Sans Merci 109 Cinefile: The femme fatale and film noir 112 Ode on a Grecian Urn 114 The novel in the Romantic Age 118 Walter Scott and Jane Austen 118 Non-fiction prose in the Romantic Age 120 Hotlink Big Science: Joseph Priestley 120 The rights of woman 122 Jane Austen 123 Sense and Sensibility 125 Cinefile: Sense and Sensibility 128 Pride and Prejudice 131 Mary Shelley 135 Frankenstein 137 Cinefile: Frankenstein 140 ROUND-UP 5 FOCUS ON FCE MULTIMEDIA LAB Theme path: Interfering with nature All the texts are recorded on both the class audio-cd and the DVD-ROM. Numbers 24 and 26 are only recorded on the DVD-ROM. TIME ZONE 5 The Victorian Age ( ) The Age of Empire 154 Hotlink Cult. Studies: Hobsbawm 158 Art Link: Queen Victoria 162 Hotlink Cult. Studies: On Photography 164 The late Victorian period 166 Hotlink Big Science: Darwin 168 United States: birth of a nation 170 Cinefile: The American Western Victorian literature 173 The Victorian novel 173 Early Victorian novelists 174 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Contemporary Victorians 176 Late Victorian novelists 177 American prose in the 19th century 179 Edgar Allan Poe 180 The Fall of the House of Usher 183 The Oval Portrait 185 Hotlink Music: Lou Reed 189 Charles Dickens 190 Oliver Twist 193 Hard Times 197 Cinefile: Dead Poets Society 201 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Ferdydurke 201 Great Expectations 205 Rewriting: Peter Carey 208 Jack Maggs 210 Charlotte Brontë 213 Jane Eyre Extract Extract Rewriting: Jean Rhys 221 Wide Sargasso Sea 223 Emily Brontë 225 Wuthering Heights 227 Nathaniel Hawthorne 231 The Scarlet Letter 233 Cinefile: The Village 236 Herman Melville 237 Moby-Dick 239 Lost in Translation? Unfaithfully alive 242 George Eliot 243 Middlemarch 245 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Madame Bovary 248 Lewis Carroll 249 Word matters: Lewis Carroll 252 Alice s Adventures in Wonderland 253 Cinefile: Alice 256 Thomas Hardy 257 Tess of the D Urbervilles 259 Cinefile: Tess 263 Art Link: The Pre-Raphaelites 264 Henry James 266 The Portrait of a Lady 269 Cinefile: The Portrait of a Lady 272 Robert Louis Stevenson 273 The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde 275 Victorian Poetry 279 Hotlink Cult. Studies: W. Morris 282 Poetry in America 283 Alfred Tennyson 284 Ulysses 286 Hotlink From Brit Lit to It Lit: Pavese 290 Walt Whitman 292 Song of Myself 294 Emily Dickinson 297 There is a solitude of space 299 Good Morning Midnight 301 There s a certain Slant of light 303 Christina Rossetti 305 In an Artist s Studio 306 Hotlink Music: Dead friends 308 Remember 309 Art Link: D. G. Rossetti 311 Art Link: Burne-Jones 312 Victorian drama 313 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Ibsen 314 Oscar Wilde 315 The Picture of Dorian Gray 318 Hotlink Comp. Lit.: Huysmans 321 The Importance of Being Earnest 324 George Bernard Shaw 328 Pygmalion 330 ROUND-UP 6 FOCUS ON FCE MULTIMEDIA LAB Theme path: Education 338 TIME ZONE 4 The Romantic Age ( ) PICTURE THIS 1 In the period you are going to study a number of English poets were developing, in their different ways, a new style of poetry which later became known as Romantic poetry. Here are some quotations from some of their poems. Try to match each quotation (1-5) with the theme it evokes (a-e). a the superiority of an imagined experience to a real one b the revelation of nature to a poetic sensibility c a natural element as a symbol of revolution and change d the impossibility of controlling creative or destructive energy e man at the mercy of the inhospitable elements 1 Tyger : tiger. 2 frame : control and contain. Tyger! 1 Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame 2 thy fearful symmetry? William Blake 1 O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? Percy Bysshe Shelley 2 2 The Romantic movement included not only writers but also painters. Here are five paintings by important artists of the period. In pairs try to describe each picture. Use some of the following adjectives to help you: violent dream-like visionary powerful shocking wild horrific fantastic emotional overwhelming spiritual mysterious Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows (1831) by John Constable. Private collection. Moonrise by the Sea (about 1822) by Caspar David Friedrich. Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 6 I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats 3 on high o er 4 vales 5 and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host 6 of golden daffodils; 7 William Wordsworth And now the storm-blast 8 came, and he 9 Was tyrannous and strong; He struck with his o ertaking 10 wings, And chased us south along. Samuel Taylor Coleridge 3 5 Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter; John Keats 4 3 floats : (here) moves as if on the surface of water. 4 o er : over. 5 vales : valleys. 6 host : multitude. 7 daffodils : yellow narcissi. 8 storm-blast : tempest. 9 he : refers to the storm. 10 o ertaking : uncontrollable. Shade and Darkness the Evening of the Deluge (1843) by J. M. W. Turner. Tate Gallery, London. Death on a Pale Horse (about 1800) by William Blake. The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Silence ( ) by Johann Heinrich Füssli. Kunsthaus, Zürich. 7 TIME ZONE 4 The Romantic Age ( ) 1 The Age of Revolutions The birth of the US A chain of revolutions During the first half of the 18th century, British society attained a high level of political and social stability. But it was not to last for long. The American Declaration of Independence from British rule of 1776 saw George Washington become the first president of the United States of America. The Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson, stated that America was an independent nation and its inhabitants had the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The loss of the American colonies as a consequence of the American War of Independence ( ) began at a time when Britain s conservative rulers feared the forces of revolutionary ferment, and were determined to prevent these forces from spreading to British society. This is why this period is often referred to as the Age of Revolutions. The Industrial Revolution completely transformed Britain s social structure, while the French Revolution brought new ideas and beliefs. Both revolutions had a deep influence on all aspects of British culture and literature. The idea of revolution that emerged at this time was different to that of the Glorious Revolution of the 17th century: the aim of revolution now was no longer to restore society to an earlier uncorrupted state but to get rid of old forms of government and find new and more just ways to organise and govern society. Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1776 by John Trumbull. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven Accession of George III The American War of Independence Start of the French Revolution The second French Revolution. Beginning of the Jacobin regime. Britain goes to war with France Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France. 8 1 The Age of Revolutions TIME ZONE 4 The Industrial Revolution The term Industrial Revolution generally refers to England s economic development from 1760 to the middle of the 19th century which transformed Britain from an agricultural to an industrial country. The Industrial Revolution involved the use of new sources of power (like coal and steam) and also important technological inventions like the steam engine. Transportation and communication in general improved greatly in this period. Britain s Industrial Revolution reached its climax with the Great Exhibition of 1851, which exhibited new inventions of science and technology and all sorts of objects from all over the world. THE INVENTION OF DAILY LIFE The new urban population During the Industrial Revolution, power and wealth began to move from the landowning aristocracy to factory owners and other employers based in the cities. In this period cities expanded rapidly thanks to the influx of rural farm workers, who became industrial labourers. The new urban masses lived in conditions of terrible poverty and overcrowding and the air was polluted by smoke from factories. Working conditions were extremely bad: people worked up to sixteen hours a day, wages were poor, and women and children were paid less than men. In the countryside, agriculture too was gradually being transformed by industrial Stockport Viaduct (about 1848). Science Museum, London. The print shows houses and smoking chimneys on the banks of the River Mersey. practices aimed at greater efficiency and productivity. Open fields and farmland were enclosed into small segregated holdings to increase efficiency, but only rich farmers and landowners benefited, while it became increasingly difficult for the poor who did not own land to find food or pastures to graze their animals. It was partly this increasing poverty that forced the rural population to move to the cities to find work. FIELDWORK Use the Internet to look for more information about urban planning and living conditions (including kinds of buildings, sanitation, water supply, etc.) in Britain during the Industrial Revolution Battle of Trafalgar Britain abolishes the slave trade Prince of Wales takes over from George III because of his insanity Luddite riots Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by the Duke of Wellington. Armistice signed at the Congress of Vienna. 9 TIME ZONE 4 The Romantic Age ( ) Fascination and fear Birth of the modern state The French Revolution: from emancipation to terror The French Revolution ( ) inaugurated an age of political and social change which spread throughout Europe and which was to definitively transform the political culture of most of Europe. In Britain, the Revolution, at least in its early phases, had many supporters in intellectual circles, particularly among Romantic poets such as Blake, Coleridge and Wordsworth. Later, however, many thinkers began to fear that the ensuing terror might spread to Britain. Edmund Burke, for example, condemned the Revolution s violence in his Reflections on the French Revolution (1790). Society, he thought, should develop organically and through reforms, and not through revolution. But Burke was more of a conservative than a reformist. The radical thinker Thomas Paine responded to his book with a revolutionary testament, The Rights of Man ( ), in which he claimed that everybody had natural rights that were not based on property and birth. Paine also advocated a redistribution of resources to alleviate the sufferings of the poor. Immediately after the publication of his book, the government decided to try Paine for treason but the poet William Blake helped him to escape from the country and go to France. In general, the forces of revolution exercised a mixture of fascination and fear in the minds of the educated classes. Loyalist propaganda was used to stir up nationalist feeling against France and the British armed forces grew greatly. By persuading the disordered British working classes to identify with an idea of national unity, symbolised by the king, the government hoped to prevent their identification with the French revolutionary masses, with whom they had more in common than they knew. After its initial emancipatory gesture of eliminating the aristocracy, the French Revolution had developed into a bloody power struggle between different groups. The Jacobins, who seized power from the moderate middle-class Girondins in 1793, used extreme measures to realise their revolutionary aims. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, they mobilised a huge army and radicalised the French constitution, introducing the idea of liberty, equality and fraternity for all, in theory if not in practice the first genuinely democratic constitution to be proclaimed by a modern state. However, at the same time, their idea of justice for all also meant the execution of large numbers of traitors to the revolution the justice of the guillotine. Moreover, the masses had little chance to exercise their freedom: they were needed as soldiers to fight against France s now numerous enemies. Storming the Bastille (1789) by Jean-Pierre Houel. Musée Carnavalet, Paris Peterloo massacre Accession of George IV Accession of William IV First Reform Act. Vote extended to middle-class men Abolition of the institution of slavery. 10 1 The Age of Revolutions TIME ZONE 4 CINEFILE Rohmer s revolution: an impossible vision? Most cinema representations of the French Revolution have taken the side of historical destiny. We see events from the perspective of the victors, the revolutionaries, as they dispose of the old order and establish a new power hierarchy which is masked by a popular mythology of liberty, equality and fraternity. But one French film-maker, Eric Rohmer, a cinéaste who in the 1960s formed part of the nouvelle vague, has had the audacity to try to reverse this perspective, to show what the Revolution looked like from the point of view of the crumbling artistocratic order those who saw their worldview being swept away and who had to adapt in order to survive the Terror. Based on the memoirs of an Englishwoman, Grace Elliott, who lived in Paris and was herself imprisoned at the time of the Revolution, L Anglaise et le duc (2001) is Rohmer s attempt to create an authentic portrait of what it might have felt like to be an aristocrat caught up in the Scene from the film L Anglaise et le duc (2001) by Eric Rohmer. events of The first problem was recreating the urban landscape of 18th-century Paris, an impossible project given that the city had been transformed beyond all recognition. Rather than create a fake Paris by editing together shots of old buildings in different cities, Rohmer s highly original solution was to insert his actors in digitally composited painted backdrops based on drawings and paintings of the period, a technique that involves filming actors against a green screen and then using computer technology to fill in the rest of the image around them. The result is a film that looks and feels like a living painting. Uninterested in taking sides or on speculating whether the Revolution was a good or bad thing, the strength of Rohmer s film lies in the way it focuses on the difficult relation between personal and historical space and time. Whatever we may think of her royalist views, Grace Elliott is shown as a woman bravely attempting to preserve an ethical code of conduct in the face of overwhelming events when most people are simply running to join the dominant tide of history. The film traces the evolution of Grace s friendship with the Republican Duc d Orleans, a politically astute man whose progressive views conflict with her own and who risks being compromised by his association with a Royalist but who still tries to help her when she is imprisoned. What is most powerful about the film is that despite, or perhaps because of the visual artifice, the events it depicts seem to be taking place in the present. We are made to feel not the abstract march of history but the human drama of Grace Elliott s resistance and fidelity to her idea of life. 22 Filmflash Now watch the stills on your DVD-ROM and do the interactive activities. 11 ART LINK ART LINK Turner: turbulent landscapes 1 lash : (here) tie. 2 mast : central wooden pole on a sailing ship. 3 lashed : (here) beaten forcefully by the waves. 4 bound : obliged. Joseph Mallord William Turner ( ) One of the finest English landscape artists, Turner began exhibiting his work while still a teenager and, unlike many artists of his time, was successful throughout his career. Turner travelled widely throughout Europe, which provided the inspiration for some of his finest work. Like Constable, he was a keen meteorologist, studying the effects of various kinds of weather on the sea and sky. Although trained as a topographic draughtsman (drawer of maps and plans), he later refined his painting technique according to Romantic principles, translating ordinary scenes into quasi-abstract light-fields which expressed his emotional and physical perception of the landscape. Snow Storm (1842) The author was in this storm on the night the Ariel left Harwich says the accompanying note that Turner wrote for his Snow Storm, one of his best renderings of the raging elements. I got the sailors to lash 1 me to the mast 2 to observe it; I was lashed 3 for four hours, and I did not expect to escape, but I felt bound 4 to record it if I did, he added. The effect of irresistible motion the painting provokes is achieved through the wild movements of the waves as well as the powerful vortex of storm clouds revealing a glimpse of blue sky. Snow Storm Steam-Boat off a Harbour s Mouth Making Signals in Shallow Water, and Going by the Lead (1842) by J. M. W. Turner. Clore Gallery for the Turner Collection, Tate Gallery, London. 12 ART LINK Rain, Steam and Speed (1844) Rain, Steam and Speed provides us with one of the first important representations of a train. However, as often happens
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