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Anthropological Studies of the Ainu in Japan: Past and Present

Anthropological Studies of the Ainu in Japan: Past and Present
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  Japanese Society of Cultural AnthropologyNII-Electronic Library Service JapaneseSociety   of   Cultural   Anthropology Japanese   Review   of   CulturalAnthropologM vol.4,   2003 lt Anthropological Studies of   the   Ainu   inJapan:   Past   and   Present   YAMADA   Takako GraduateSchool of   Human   and   EnvironmentalStudies   Kyoto   University Abstract   This   article   reviews   the   main   trends   in   anthropological   studies   of   the   Ainu   in   Japan,   fromthe   past   to   the   present.During   the Edo   period, detaileddoeuments on   the   life and   culture   of the   Ainu   were   already   being   published, along   with   official   accounts   of   explorations   producedfor specific  purposes.   Ainu   studies   in   the   Melji era   developedfurther, ranging   from   travel literature to   studies   of   Ainu   ethnic   srcin,   language   and   mythology   Following   the   work   of CHAMBERLAIN,   BNI)CHELOR,   PILSuDSKI,   and   MuNRO,   YosHIDA   and   KINDAIcHI   began   to   study   the language and   fblklore ef   the   Ainu   in the   1910s.   After that, even   though   folklore studies flourished, ethnological   studies   of   the   Ainu   only   started   inJapan   with   a   joint survey   by anthropologists   and   ethnologists   in   1951. Whilefew   studies   havebeen   carried   out   on   the   socialaspects   of   Ainu   culture,   so   that   various   aspects   ef   traditienal Ainu   social   organization   remain in   dispute, recent   ethnological   studies   do   shed   light on   the   contemporary   issues confronting   theAinu,   such   as   tourism,   cultural   revitalization,   ethnicity   anrf   identityAccounts   of   the   Ainu   in Japan   have   thus   focused successively   on   their ethnic   srcins,   their folklore and   religion,   and finally their ethnicity   and   identityKey   words:   Ainu   studies,   ethnic   srcin   of   the   Ainu,fblkloristic studies,   language, mythologylreligion,   ethnological   studies   ofthe   Nnu,   discourses on   the   Ainu,   ethnicity   and   identity Introduction   Ifwe   defineJapanese Ainu   studies   as   consisting   of   all   the   studies   conducted   inJapan   on the   Ainu  and  their   culture,   the   field now   includes more   than   3,500   volumes   according   to   the  Japanese Society of Cultural AnthropologyNII-Electronic Library Service JapaneseSociety   ofCultural   Anthropology foYArvIAI)ATakako Ainu   Bibliqgraph{y (IRIMoTo 1992).Studies   have   been   carried   out   in   a   variety   of   disciplines, including   ethnologM   anthropologM   folklore, archaeology)   linguistics, geography   and   history   It might   be   thought   that   the   academic   study   of   the   Ainu   in   Japan   started   in   the   Melji period. However,   a   number   of   reports   based   on   expeditions   to   "Ezo"   (renamed Hokkaido   in   the Melji period) were   published   inthe Edo   period,  especially  in   itslateryears   when   the   defense of the national boundary   against   invasionfrom   the   north   became   a   serious   political concern   of   the[[bkugawa   Shogunate. Those   documents   written   beforethe   Melji   period   are   generally categorized   as   "kyu-ki"   (archives), but   they   are   valuable   even   todayfor an  understanding of the   life and   cukure   of   the   Ainu.   Most   were   reprinted   during the   1970s   and   1980s.   Hokkaido and   the   Ainu   were   thoroughly   explored   during   the   Edo   period, marking   the   real   beginning of Ainu   studies   in   Japan,   In   the   early   days of   the   Melji period, many   European   scholars   also published   works   on   the   Ainu, and   these   eventually   encouraged   further   studies   of   Ainu anthropology   and   folkloreby   the   Japanese.   Inthis review   article,   I will   explore   the history ofAinu   studies,   concentrating   especially   onethnological   werks   and   those   closely   related   to   ethnological   themes.   I   explore   the   distinctive characteristics   of   Ainu   studies   in   Japan,   as   well   as   the   problems   involvedin this field,[[b accomplish   this,I   look   first at   the   documents   published   during   the   Edo   period,   befbre describing the   different trends   in   Ainu   studies   after   the   Meijiperiod.   Explorations   of   Hokkaido   and   the   Ainu   dui'ing the   Latter   Part   of   the   Edo   Period   Pioneering reports   on   the   Ainu   by   foreign observers   include   documents   such   as   theRelatione   deZRagno   di   fe2o [An Account of   the   Land   of   Ezo]   sent   tothe   Society of   Jesus(Jesuits) in   Rome   by   the   Italian missionarM   Father   de   Ange!is, who   visited   Hokkaido   in   1618 and   1621   (KoDAMA 1941).In   contrast,   no   accounts   based   on   first-handinvestigationsby Japanese were   published   until   the   eighteenth   century   One   example   is that   of   SAKAKuRA Gebjiro, a   clerk   ofthe   Tbkugawa   ShogunateMint, who   made   a   study   of   gold   and   silver   mines   in Holrlsaido and   referred   to   the   Ainu   in   his   essaM   Hbhhai   Zuihitsu   [An Essay   on   the   Northern Sea](SAKAKuRA   1739/1972).Others include   Matsumae-shi   [A History   of   Matsumae]   byMATsuMAE   Hironaga (17811 1972), 7b-yu-lei [A Narrative of   My   [[lravels to   the   East]by   HEzuTsu [[bsaku (178411972), and   deo   Shui   [Gleanings of   Ezo]   by   SA]roGenrokuTo   (178611972),   The   [[bkugawaShogunate also   dispatched several   expeditions   toEzo.   MoGAMI   [[bkunai, who   joined an   expedition   in1785,   wrote   E2o   Zoshi   [An Account of   Ezo] (MoGAMI 1790/1972) and   Exo   Zoshi   Kbhen   [An   Account   ofEzo,   Part   2] (MoGAMi   1800f1972).   HATA   Awakimaru,   later renamed   MuRAKAMI   Shimanojo, accompanied   a   large-scale expedition   dispatched   in   1798   bythe   Shogunate and   wrete   Egov'irna   Kihan   [Natural Wonders   of   Ezo   Island], which   skillfu11y pertrayed   the   life ofthe   Ainu   with   fille pictures (HATA 17981   1982). Anotherimportant source   is Higashi   Ezo-chi   Dochu-ki   [A Record   of   My   [[ravelsin   Eastern   Ezo]   (Unknown   1791).   The   nineteenth   century   witnessed   a   more   active   exploration   of   Hokkaido,   INo   Tadataka  Japanese Society of Cultural AnthropologyNII-Electronic Library Service JapaneseSociety   of   Cultural   Anthropology AnthropologicalStudies of   the   Nnu   in   Japan:   Past   and   Present 77 surveyed   Hokkaido   in   1800   and   drew   the   territory's firstfine map,   which   was   supplemented by   MAMIyA   Rinzo   after   an   additional   survey   in   1810.A   work   entitled   Higashi   Ezo-ehiKizhuBasho   7ttigaisho [A GeneralDescription of   Each   District in   Eastern Ezo]   was   published   in1809,   although   the   author   is unknown.   This   key   document   systematically   described not   only thetopographM production,population, and   settlement   patterns   of   each   districtbut   also   Ainu subsistence   activities,   fbod processing, storage   and   consumption.   TAMAMusHI   Sadayu, asamurai   from   the   domain   of   Sendai   who   accompanied   an   expedition   dispatched   by   hisfeudal lord, published   a   diary of   his travels, IVb,u-hoku-hi [An Account of   a   Journey tothe   North, Hoklcaido] (TAMAMusHI 1857), while   SmMA   Giyu,   a   samurai   from   the   domain   of   Saga   inKyushu,   who   aecompanied   a   tour   of   inspection of   Hokkaido   by   the   magistrate   of   Hakodate,   alsoreeorded   the   tour   in   his   diary,Ailyu-hohu-ki [An Account of   a   Journey   tothe   North,   Hokkaido] (SHIMA 1857),   Among   the   archives   published   beforethe   Melji   period, a   series   of   works   by   MATsuuRA Takeshiro are   panicularly   important as   material   forAinu   studies.   MAi]suuRA made   a   series   ofexpeditions   toHokkaido   in1845,   1846,   1849,1855,   1857   and   1859,   visiting   the   interior more frequently than   any   other   Japanese   explorer,   and   producing   detailed written   accounts (MATsuuRA 185011970,185611978,1857/1982,1858/1985),He   made   the   1857   and   1859 expeditiens   as   an   oMcial   researcher   for the   [lbkugawa   Shogunate, studying   the   geegraphy   of Hokkaido, especially   the   rivers   and   mountains.   As   he   was   well   acquainted   with   the   Ainu language,   he   wrote   the   finest accounts   of   the   Ainu   firom that   period. For   example,   7ttkeshiro KlxihoNikhi   [A Diary   of   Takeshiro'sVbyage]   (MATsuuRA   1856/1978)   deseribes not   only   the topography   with   place names   in the   Ainu   language   and   bird's-eye pictures   but   also   the   number ofhouses,   the   demographM   and   the   names   ofthe   inhabitants   in   each   settlement,   comparing   the results   with   those   of   fbrmer   investigations.Bo-go   7bzai   Ezo   Sansen   Chiri   7brishirabeNisshi   [A   iDiary   of   GeographicalExplorationsin Eastern   and   Western   Ezo   in   the   Year   of   Earth-ElderBrother-Horse]   (MA];suuRA 185811985),   the   style   of   description of   which   fbllows that   of 7?iheshiroKtzihoNikki,   deseribesfor each   settlement   the   number   of   households, the   names   of their members,   ages,   kin or   family relationships,   and   notes   on   social   roles.   It also   deseribes indetailthe   animals   and   plants,products, and   subsistence   econom}L   The   works   of   Miy]]suuRA   are highly   valued   as   ethnographic   materials   fbr exploring   Ainu   culture   during the   lateEdo   period,  '   Ainu   Studies   in   the   Melji   Period:   From   [[beavel   Literature   to   the   Study   of   Ethnic   Origins,Language,   and   Mythology   i   European   scholars   took   the   initiativein   Ainu   studies   during   the   finalyears   of   the   Edo period   and   the   early   Meiji   period,The   Ainu   attracted   great   interest among   Europeansin terms of   their racial   characteristics   because   they   were   viewed   as   a   Caucasoid   population   in   the   FarEast.   Although   he   himselfhad   never   visited   Japan,August   PFizMAiER of   the   University of Vienna   published   a   book   on   Ainu  vocabulary (PFIzMAIER 1854).IVbert   S.BIcKMoRE   visited YUrappu,Mori, and   Ylikumoin Hokkaido   and   wrote   several   articles   such   as   "The   Ainos,   or  Japanese Society of Cultural AnthropologyNII-Electronic Library Service JapaneseSociety   ofCultural   Anthropology 78 YAMADA   Takako Hairy   Men   ofYesso,"   based on   his   investigations of   food, ornaments,   marriage,   household, and beliefs (BIcKMoRE 1868a,   1868b,   1869).Ernest   SATove who   visited   Hakodate, Yamakoshi,   and Ylikume   in   1867   and   1870,   Thomas   BLAKisToN,   who   visited   Hokkaidoin1869,IsabellaL.BmD, who   traveledthrough   Hokkaido   in1878,   and   XM   DENING,   who   visited   the   Iburi and   Hidaka regions   in   1876, also   discuss   the   Ainu   in   scattered   references   in   their books (SATow 1870;BLAKIsToN1872;BIRD   1880;DENING   1877).   The   Ainu   werb   also   of   great   interestto   Europeans   because,   like prehistoric Europeans,they   practicedthe   bearfestival (iomante), and   several   articles   of   the   festival were   written   byEuropean   researchers   (GuNzBouRG 1894;   HILGENDoRF   1876;   ScHEuBE   1880,   1882, 1891). ScHEuBE,   a   German   anthropologist   who   traveled   to   the   southern   part   of   Hokkaido   in   1880, for example,   not   only   stressed   the   racial   and   physical   connections   between the   Ainu   and Europeans,   but   also   the   relationships   in   terms   of   religion   and   beliefs. At   that   time,   European scientists   were   partlyinterestedin   Ainu   culture   for the   light it ceuld   shed   on   the   life of   theprehistoric Europeans.   Japanese   scientists,   meanwhile,   took   note   of   the   studies   carried   out   by   Europeans and began to   purspe   anthropological   studies   of   the   Ainu   more   actively   themselves.   wnile European anthropologists   studied   the   Ainu   mostly   because   of   their Caucasoid srcin,   the   Japanese studied   the   srcins   ofthe   Ainu   from   anthropological   and   archaeological   viewpoints   in   order   to explore   the   srcins   of   the   Japanese.TsuBoiShogorodeveloped theories srcinally   proposed   by Edward   MoRsE,   that   the   srcinal   inhabitants   of   Japan   were   a   pre-Ainu   people. He   suggested that   these   people, ealled   the   "Korobokkuru,"   disappeared   or   were   driven out   of   Hokkaido   bythe   Ainu,  who  were   themselves   driven out   of   Honshu   by   later waves   of   invaders (TsuBol 1887; IKEDA   1998).   In contrast,   KoGANEi   Ybshikiyo, who   was   deeplyinfluencedby   the   work   of   Erwin   BAELz (BAELz1901), was   the   first anthropologist   to   study   the   Ainu.   Based   on   a   comparative   study   of the   limbbones of   Stone   Age   man,   modern   Japanese   and   the   Ainu,   he   suggested   that   the   Ainu were   the   Stone Age   peoples  ofJapan  (KoGANEi   1893,1894,1927),ToRIiRyuzo   also   published   a series   of   anthropological,   archaeological,   and   ethnological   works   on   the   Ainu   (ToRII 189911981a,   1899/1981b, 1903,   1919/1976)   after   his   expeditien   tothe   Kurile   Islands.In   particular, he   proposed   the   hypothesis that   the   Japanese   today are   derivedfrom   a   mixture   of   the E`Japanese   proper'i (the Yhyoi   population), and   peoples   whe   came   from   overseas   in   the   Bronze and   IronAges, while   the   Ainu   today   srcinated   from   the   indigenous   Jomon   population.   A   number   of   other   ethnological   works   by   Japanese   scholars   datefirom thisperiod. They include   Ainu   iji-dan [An Account   of   Ainu   Medicine]by   SEKIBA Fdjjhiko   (189611980), which deseribedillness among   the   Ainu; a   description of   the   geography of   Hokkaido   and   the usefulness   ef   the   Ainu   language   fbrJapanese   geographers   by   JINBoKotora (1892, 1895); and   areport   on   plant narnes   by   MIyABE   Kingo   and   JINBo Kotora   (MIyABE and   JINBo   1892).Hewever,the   best ethnological   and   cultural   anthropological   studies   on   the   Ainu   were   those   of   European ethnologists,   such   as   CHAMBERLAIN, BA[pCHELoR,   PILSuDsm,   and   MuNRO.   BasilHallCmmIBERLAIN, for   example,   considered   Ainu   culture   not   as   a   remnant   of  Japanese Society of Cultural AnthropologyNII-Electronic Library Service JapaneseSociety   of   Cultural   Anthropology AnthropologicalStudies ofthe   Nnu   in   Japan:Past and   Present 79European   prehistoric culture   but   as   the   archetype   ofJapanese   culture.   He   compared   in   detail the   Japanese and   Ainu   languages,   mythologies,   and   geogTaphical nomenclature   (CHA)vlBERLAIN 188811969,   1887), showing   scientifically   the  similarities and   differences between   them. Further,   in   a   debate with BAIvcHELoR   on   the   srcins   of   the   Ainu  word  hantui,he   demonstratedthat   itis etymologically   the   same   as   the   Japanese   woTd   fbrhanzi   (CHAMBERLAIN 1888).His work,   together   with   that   of   BATcHELoR, whieh  will   be   discussedbelow, triggeredfurther   Ainu studies   focusing on   myths   and   folklore.   BA[rcHELoR,   who   settled   in   Hokkaido   as   a   missionary   in   1877,   studied   the   Ainu   language and   began   to   collect   a  variety  of   material   on   myths,   legends, customs   and   manners,   and   beliefs. His   first work   "Notes   on   the   Ainu"(BA[vcHELoR   1882a) was   fbllowedby   many   bthers(BATcHELoR 1882b,   1887,   1888a,   1888b,   188911981, 1891/1972,   1901,   1935;   BrvrcHELoR   and MIyABE   1893). His   book,An   Ainu-English-eJttpanese Dictionar:y (BATcHELoR   188911981) was the   firstfu11-scaledictionary of   Ainu, and   until   very   recently   it was   regarded  as the authoritative   work   on   the   Ainu   language. The   Ainu   and   77LeirPbllelore (BATcHELoR 1901)   was the,firstfu11-scale ethnography   of   Ainu   Iife.A   later work,   A   Study   ofAncient   Jcrpanese Local Naihes Viewed   from Ainu   Language   (BATcHELoR 1935), was also   a   pioneering   work   on geogiraphical nomenclature   in   Japan.   John   BATcHELoR   was   the   first scholar   to   collect   a   large   amount  of folklore, and   he described   the   life of   the   Ainu,   including customs,   manners   and   religion,   based on   these materials,   However,   he   did not  try   to explain   Ainu   folklore using   paralleltexts,but   only   in   theform   of   an   English   translationthat   revealed,   unfortunatelM   the   limitations of   his   work, Moreover,   his   interpretations of   Ainu   religion   and   worldview,   such   as   his   description of   the Creator playing   the   rele   ofjudge   at   the   Last   Judgment   and   the   Ainu   as   dividing the   otherworld   intoHeaven   and   Hell, were   later criticized   as   beinginfluencedby   his own   Christianity. (CHAMBERLAIN,fbrinstance,had   argued   that   the   1linu   had   never   seen   the   other   world   as dividedintoHeaven   and   Hell   [CHAMBERLAIN 1887].)But   even   taking   these   comments   into consideration,   BATcHELoR's   71heAinu   and   Their   liblkloreis still   one   of   the  most important souirces   for exploring   the   past   culture   of   the   Nnu,   Bronislaw   PILsuDs-,  who was  sent   into   exile   te   the   Far   East   for eighteen   years   during theCzarist   period in   Russia,   conducted   ethnographic   research   among   the   Sakhalin   Ainu   in   1902- 1905   and  wrote  many   documents   concerning   the   language, folklore, customs, bear   festival andshamanism   of   the   Sakhalin Ainu   (PILsuDsKI 1909a,   1909b,1912,1935;WADA   and   PiLsuDsKI 1961). His work   drew   attention   to   the   richness   of   the   fblklore of   the   Sakhalin Ainu   and   he recorded  350   examples   of   oral   tradition using   wax   cylinders.   Among   them,   twenty-seven exarnples   of   upaskuma   (myths of   srcin)   were   published   as   Materials for the   Stucly of   the   Ainu Lauguage   and   Folklore (PILsuDsKI 1912). This provided   the   srcinal   Sakhalin   Ainu   text   in   the fbrm   of   an   alphabetic   transcriptiontogether   with   a   literal English   translation, a   literaryEnglish translation, and   a   rich   eommentary   on   the   Ainu   language.   Moreover, the   wax   cylinders leftby   PILsuDsKi   were   eventually   copied   (AsAKuRA and   IFuKuBE 1986)   and   became   valuable phopetic   materials   fbr the   study   of   the   SakhalinAinu   language.   The   works   of   PILsu]sKI   are
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