Artificial Vision Lakkireddy

Presentation on Presented by D.SUBHASH (III B.Tech E.I.E) 98851 22661 G.VAMSI KRISHNA (III B.Tech E.I.E.) 99851 20073 LAKIREDDY BALI REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Mylavaram, Krishna Dist. ARTIFICIAL VISION TOWARDS CREATING THE JOYS OF SEEING FOR THE BLIND Made possible by micro medical electronics ABSTRACT: Blindness is more feared by the public than any other ailment. Artificial vision for the blind was once the stuff of science fiction. Bu
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  Presentationon   Presentedby D.SUBHASH G.VAMSI KRISHNA(III B.Tech E.I.E) (III B.Tech E.I.E.)98851 22661 99851 20073 LAKIREDDY BALI REDDY COLLEGEOF ENGINEERING Mylavaram, Krishna Dist.     ARTIFICIAL VISION TOWARDS CREATING THE JOYS OF SEEING FOR THE  BLIND  Made possible by micro medical electronics ABSTRACT: Blindness is more feared by the publicthan any other ailment. Artificial vision for the blind was once the stuff of science fiction. Butnow, a limited form of artificial vision is areality .Now we are at the beginning of the endof blindness with this type of technology. In aneffort to illuminate the perpetually dark worldof the blind, researchers are turning totechnology. They are investigating severalelectronic-based strategies designed to bypassvarious defects or missing links along the brain's image processing pathway and providesome form of artificial sight.This paper is about curing blindness.Linking electronics and biotechnology , thescientists has made the commitment to thedevelopment of technology that will provide or restore vision for the visually impaired aroundthe world. This paper describes thedevelopment of  artificial vision system , whichcures blindness to some extent. This paper explains the process involved in it and explainsthe concepts of artificial silicon retina, corticalimplants etc. The roadblocks that are createdare also elucidated clearly. Finally theadvancements made in this system and scope of this in the future is also presented clearly. INTRODUCTION: Artificial-vision researchers take inspirationfrom another device, the cochlear implant,which has successfully restored hearing tothousands of deaf people. But the human visionsystem is far more complicated than that of hearing. The eye is one of the most amazingorgans in the body. Before we understand howartificial vision is created, it's important toknow about the important role that the retina plays in how we see. Here is a simpleexplanation of what happens when we look atan object: ã Scattered light from the object entersthrough the cornea. ã The light is projected onto the retina. ã The retina sends messages to the brainthrough the optic nerve. ã The brain interprets what the object is.    Figures (1, 2):the anatomy of the eye and its path view The retina is complex in itself. This thinmembrane at the back of the eye is a vital partof our ability to see. Its main function is toreceive and transmit images to the brain. Theseare the three main types of cells in the eye thathelp perform this function: Rods, Cones andGanglion Cells. The information received bythe rods and cones are transmitted to the nearly1 million ganglion cells in the retina. Theseganglion cells interpret the messages from therods and cones and send the information on tothe brain by way of the optic nerve. There are anumber of retinal diseases that attack thesecells, which can lead to blindness. The mostnotable of these diseases are retinitispigmentosa and age-related maculardegeneration . Both of these diseases attack theretina, rendering the rods and conesinoperative, causing either loss of peripheralvisionor total blindness. However, it's been found that neither of these retinal diseases affects the ganglioncells or the optic nerve.This means that if scientists can developartificial cones and rods, information could still be sent to the brain for interpretation. Thisconcept laid the foundation for the invention of the ARTIFICIAL VISION SYSTEM technology. HOW TO CREATE ARTIFICIALVISION? The current path that scientists are taking tocreate artificial vision received a jolt in 1988,when Dr. Mark Humayun demonstrated that a blind person could be made to see light bystimulating the nerve ganglia behind the retina  with an electrical current. This test proved thatthe nerves behind the retina still functionedeven when the retina had degenerated. Basedon this information, scientists set out to create adevice that could translate images and electrical pulses that could restore vision. Today, such adevice is very close to be available to themillions of people who have lost their vision toretinal disease. In fact, there are at least twosilicon microchip devices that are beingdeveloped. The concept for both devices issimilar, with each being: ã Small enough to be implanted in the eye ã Supplied with a continuous source of  power  ã Biocompatible with the surrounding eyetissue Figures (3, 4) the dot above the date on thispenny is the full size of the Artificial SiliconRetina.  Perhaps the more promising of these twosilicon devices is the ARTIFICIAL SILICONRETINA (ASR). The ASR is an extremely tinydevice. It has a diameter of just 2 mm (.078inch) and is thinner than a human hair. In order for an artificial retina to work it has to be smallenough so that doctors can transplant it in theeye without damaging the other structureswithin the eye. Groups of researchers havefound that blind people can see spots of lightwhen electrical currents stimulate cells,following the experimental insertion of anelectrode device near or into their retina. Some patients even saw crude shapes in the form of these light spots. This indicates that despitedamage to cells in the retina, electronictechniques can transmit signals to the next stepin the pathway and provide some form of visualsensation. Researchers are currently developingmore sophisticated computer chips with thehope that they will be able to transmit moremeaningful images to the brain. How ARTIFICIAL SILICONRETINA does works? The ASR contains about 3,500microscopicsolar cellsthat are able to convertlight into electrical pulses, mimicking thefunction of cones and rods. To implant thisdevice into the eye, surgeons make three tinyincisions no larger than the diameter of aneedle in the white part of the eye. Throughthese incisions, the surgeons introduce aminiature cutting and vacuuming device thatremoves the gel in the middle of the eye andreplaces it with saline. Next, a pinpoint openingis made in the retina through which they inject
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