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  Ashura  Ashura mourning in Imam HosseinSquare, Tehran, 2016 Official name  رﻮﺷﺎﻋ   ʻ    Āshūrā’ (inArabic) Also called Hosay, Tabuik, Tabot,The Day of Atonement Observed by Muslims Type Islamic and national(In some countriessuch as Afghanistan,Bahrain, Iran,Lebanon, Pakistan,Bangladesh, Iraq,India, and Indonesia) Significance Marks the martyrdomof Husayn ibn Aliaccording to ShiaIslam; the day thatMoses fasted asgratitude for theliberation of theIsraelites according toSunni Islam Observances Mourn and derivemessages fromHusayn's sacrifice(Shia Islam); fasting(Sunni Islam) Date 10 Muharram 2018 date September 20 [1] 2019 date September 10 [2] Ashura Yom Ashura  or Ashura  (Arabic: ارﻮﺷﺎﻋ   ʻ    Āshūrā’ ) is the tenth day ofMuharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. [4]  It marks the day thatHusayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was killed inthe Battle of Karbala. [5] Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, [4]  the annualcommemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at theBattle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10,680 CE). [6]  Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after thebattle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle ofKarbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest publicmourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. [7]  InAfghanistan, [8]  Iran, [9]  Iraq, [10]  Lebanon, [11]  Bahrain [12]  and Pakistan [13] Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religiouscommunities participate in it. [14][15] For some Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in theSea [16][17][18][19]  or Noah leaving the Ark. [20] EtymologyHistorical backgroundCommemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali History of the commemoration by ShiaAzadari (mourning) rituals Popular customs Significance among religions Shia IslamSunni IslamJudaism Socio-political aspectsTerrorist attacks during Ashura In the Gregorian calendarAshura in Chicago, United StatesSee alsoNotesCitationsReferencesExternal links Contents  2020 date August 29 [1] 2021 date August 18 [1] Frequency Once every Islamicyear The root of the word  Ashura  has the meaning of tenth  in Semitic languages;hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means the tenthday . According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from theHebrew ʿ āsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending. [21]  The day is indeedthe tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin , SheikhAbdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is thetenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims. [22] The Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I. [23][24]  Immediately aftersuccession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge theirallegiance (Bay'ah). [6]  Husayn, however, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against theteachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad. [25][26]  He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons,brothers, and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca. [6] On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledgingto support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel toreport to him on the situation and that if he found them supportive as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them becausean Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause ofGod. The mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But thesituation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to dealseverely with Ibn Aqeel.In Mecca, Husayn learned assassins had been sent by Yazid to kill him in the holy city in the midst of Hajj. Husayn, to preservethe sanctity of the city and specifically that of the Kaaba, abandoned his Hajj and encouraged others around him to follow him toKufa without knowing the situation there had taken an adverse turn. [6] On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the vanguard ofthe army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they hadinvited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, butif they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceedby another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at alocation that had limited access to water. [6] Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥ usayn and his supportersthe opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access tothe water of the Euphrates. [6]  On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order. [6] The Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH). Husayn's small group ofcompanions and family members (in total around 72 men and the women and children) [a][28][29]  fought against a large armyunder the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river (Euphrates), from which they were not allowed to get water.The renowned historian Abū Ray ḥ ān al-Bīrūnī states:… [T]hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses; nobody in thehistory of the human kind has seen such atrocities. [30] EtymologyHistorical background  Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers,they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took theskin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynabwas taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascuswhen she was imprisoned and after a year eventually was allowed toreturn to Medina. [31][32] According to Ignác Goldziher,[E]ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family… has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions.These are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivatedliterature of martyrologies …'More touching than the tears of theShi'is' has even become an Arabic proverb. [33] The first assembly ( majlis ) of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said tohave been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to havedelivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's 3-year-old daughter, Ruqaiyah bint Hussain , died in captivity. She would often cry inprison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she sawher father's mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid,fearing a potential uprising, freed the captives. [34] Imam Zayn Al Abidin said the following:It is said that for fourty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said tohim, 'O son of Allah's Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?' He replied, 'Woe upon you!Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constantweeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom, [b]  though his son was alive inthis world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family wereslaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?' [c][35][36] Husayn's grave became a pilgrimage site among Shia Muslims only a few years after his death. A tradition quickly developed ofpilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs, known as Ziarat ashura . [37]  The Umayyad and Abbasidcaliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites. [38]  The tomb and its annexes weredestroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850–851 and Shia pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najafwere built by the Buwayhid emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979–80. [39] Public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom developed from the early pilgrimages. [40]  Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izzad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad. [41]  These commemorations were also encouraged in Egyptby the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz. [42]  With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Name of the Karbala Martyr Husayn withIslamic calligraphy   in Hagia Sophia Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali Millions of Shia Muslims gatheraround the Husayn Mosque inKarbala after making the pilgrimageon foot during Arba'een, which is aShia religious observation thatoccurs 40 days after the Day ofAshura. History of the commemoration by Shia   Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram. [37] The words  Azadari  (Persian: یراداﺰﻋ ) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used inconnection with the remembrance ceremonies for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn,includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all,repulsion against what Yazid stood for. [43] These religious customs show solidarity with Husayn and his family. Throughthem, people mourn Husayn's death and express regret for the fact that they werenot present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family. [44][45] After almost 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around thebattle of Karbala. These rituals include the memorial services ( majalis al-ta'ziya ), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasionof the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashuraand ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya) or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play(the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir). [46]  Some Shia Muslims believe thattaking part in Ashura washes away their sins. [47]  A popular Shia saying has itthat a single tear shed for Husayn washes away a hundred sins . [48] For Shia Muslims, the commemoration of Ashura is not a festival but rather asad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God gave to Moses. ForShia Muslims, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners congregateat a mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya , noha , latmiya , and soaz  performed in memory of the martyrdom of Husayn, lamenting and grievingto the tune of beating drums and chants of Ya Hussain . Also, Ulamas givesermons with themes of Husayn's personality and position in Islam, and thehistory of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala toallow his listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Husayn and hisfamily and they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. [46][49]  In some places, such as Iran,Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, passion plays known as Ta'zieh [50]  are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbalaand the suffering and martyrdom of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. In the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago and JamaicaAhsura, known locally as 'Hussay' or Hosay is commemorated for the grandson of Muhammad, but its celebration has adoptedinfluence from other religions including Roman Catholic, Hindu, and Baptists, making it a mixture of different cultures andreligion. The event is attended by both Muslims and non-Muslims depicting an environment of mutual respect andtolerance. [51][52]  For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals ( nazri )on certain nights of the month to all people. [53] Certain traditional flagellation rituals such as Talwar zani ( talwar ka matam  or sometimes tatbir ) use a sword. Other rituals suchas  zanjeer zani  or  zanjeer matam  involve the use of a  zanjeer  (a chain with blades). [54]  This is not without controversy howeveras some Shia clerics have denounced the practice saying it creates a backward and negative image of their community. Believers are instead encouraged to donate blood to those in need. [55]  On Ashura, very few Shia Muslims observe mourning witha blood donation, which is called Qame Zani , and flailing. This mourning is considered to be a shameless way for most ShiaMuslims and most of them are against this kind of mourning. [56]  In some areas, such as in the Shia suburb of Beirut, Shia Azadari (mourning) rituals Ritual scourge for use in the Ashuraprocession. Syria, before 1974. Popular customs Indian Shia Muslims carry out aTa'ziya procession on day of Ashurain Barabanki, India, January 2009.
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