Association between the Characteristics of Vegetable Growers and Level of Adoption of Eco-Friendly Technologies in Vegetable Cultivation

Eco-friendly farming is an alternative farming technique of producing crops naturally. Though it has been identified and practiced in worldwide, the extent of adoption varies from place to place and from time to time. The study was conducted to
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  86Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 19 (4), October, 2019  Association between the Characteristics of VegetableGrowers and Level of Adoption of Eco-Friendly  Technologies in Vegetable Cultivation Rajasree R. 1 , F.L. Sharma  2  and B. Upadhyay  3 1. Ph. D Scholar, 2. Prof. (Ext.Edu.), 3. Prof. (Agril. Statistics & Computer Appl.), RCA, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan Corresponding author e-mail: rajasree089@gmail.comPaper Received on July 22, 2019, Accepted on September 21, 2019 and Published Online on October 01, 2019  ABSTRACT   Eco-friendly farming is an alternative farming technique of producing crops naturally. Though it has beenidentified and practiced in worldwide, the extent of adoption varies from place to place and from time to time.The study was conducted to investigate the association of characteristics of vegetable growers in determiningthe adoption behaviour of eco-friendly technologies in vegetable cultivation. The study employed an Ex post  facto research design where the information was collected from 240 farmers of Udaipur District of Southern Rajasthan. The findings shows that utilization of mass media, scientific orientation , training exposure and cosmopolitan outlook had significant association with the level of adoption of eco-friendly technologies invegetable cultivation. While, characteristics viz. age, education, size of family, annual income, size of land holding, farming experience, innovative proneness, economic orientation, achievement motivation, risk orientation,extension participation and institutional participation were non-significant with the adoption level.  Key words:  Eco-friendly; Sustainability; Adoption; Association; Vegetable growers; E co-friendly farming is the method of producingcrops by utilizing locally available inputs with minimaldestruction to the eco-system. It is a comprehensivegeneration framework which improves agro-environment,including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil organicaction. The eco-friendly technologies are a combinationof Integrated Crop Management (ICM), Integrated PestManagement (IPM) and Integrated Farming System(IFS). Though large number of farmers are working oneco-friendly technologies, it is very important to knowhow well our farmers are equipped to these technologies.Numerous studies related with personal characteristicsand adoption of eco-friendly management as well as otheralternative farming practices in crop cultivation has beendone in various parts of the world. Factors like education,land holding, size of family, occupation, socialparticipation, annual income, extension participation andsocio economic status of the respondents had a significantand positive association with level of adoption of eco-friendly management practices (  Dhakad, 2007  ).Whereas, Chowdhary and Ray (2010)  found that age,caste, educational status, total monthly income of thefamily, material possession, type of farm power used invegetable cultivation, experience of respondents invegetable cultivation, social participation, respondent’sfamily contact with extension agencies and exposure of the respondents to the mass media sources weresignificantly and positively correlated with the adoptionlevel of the respondents and the knowledge index andadoption level of the respondents regarding the IPMtechniques in the selected vegetable cultivation werehighly and positively correlated. Considering these facts,an investigation was conducted with specific objectives:i.To study the personal characteristics of them.ii.To ascertain the association between personal,characteristics variables with the adoption level of farmers about eco-friendly technologies. METHODOLOGY  The  Ex post facto research design used for the study. RESEARCH NOTE  Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 19 (4), October, 201987 The present study was conducted in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Udaipur district was purposively selected. Thedistrict consists of eleven Tehsils, four Tehsils namelyGirwa, Badgaon, Sarada and Mavli were selected onthe basis of maximum area in vegetable cultivation.Among these five villages were selected on the basis of maximum area in vegetable cultivation form each Tahsil.Thus, twenty villages were selected for the study. Fromeach village, twelve respondents were selected randomlyfrom the comprehensive list of vegetable growersprepared with the help of personnel of AgricultureDepartment. Thus, in all 240 respondents wereinterviewed for the study. A comprehensive interviewschedule was developed considering the specificobjectives formulated for the study. Eco-friendlytechnology consists of various traditional practices andappropriate new technologies. In this study, differenteco-friendly practices as well as the socio-economic andpsychological aspects of respondents were assessed usingsuitable measuring techniques. Data was collected byusing personal interview method and analyzed withappropriate statistical measurement. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Data presented Table 1 shows that majority of therespondents were middle aged of 33 to 56 years, wereeducated above middle school and were doing farmingas a sole profession. While, 80.00 per cent of therespondents were marginal farmers with a land holdingup to 1 hectare and majority of the vegetable growerbelonged to small family. It was further noted that 44.16per cent of the respondents had their annual income in arange of Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 2,00,000 as well as majorityof the respondents were highly experienced in farming.It was also found that majority had medium scientificorientation, achievement motivation and economicmotivation. From the analysis, it was observed that morethan 41.00 per cent of the respondents were activelyparticipated in various institutions and also it was foundthat 57.91 per cent of the respondents had medium levelof extension participation followed by 22.08 per cent of the respondents had low level of extension participation.Further it was also noted that 74.58 per cent of therespondents not received any kind of training exposureon eco-friendly technologies. Out of total respondents,55.00 per cent had medium cosmopolitan outlook followed by 25.42 per cent of respondents had Table 1. Characteristics of vegetable growers (N=240) CharacteristicsCategoryNo.%AgeYoung3815.84Middle16669.16Old3615.00EducationIlliterate2510.42Upto Middle9037.50Above middle12552.08OccupationFarming and daily wage3012.50Farming as a sole profession17372.08Farming & service3715.42Land holdingMarginal (<1 ha)19280.00Small farmers (1-2ha)3414.16Large (>2 ha)145.00Size of familySmall12351.25Medium9539.58Large229.16Annual incomeLow (<Rs.1 lakh)4217.50Medium (Rs.1.1akh-2 lakh)10644.16High (> Rs.2,lakh)9238.34FarmingLow218.75experienceMedium2912.08High19079.17ScientificLow (<17.57)3715.41orientationMedium (17.57 to 22.98)16568.75High (>22.99)3815.83AchievementLow (<10.96)2811.66motivationMedium(10.96 to 14.40)17773.75High (>14.40)3514.59EconomicLow (<20.34)5121.25motivationMedium (20.34 to 23.80)12853.24High (>23.80)6125.41InstitutionalNo membership5522.91ParticipationPassive participation8535.41Active participation10041.68Utilization ofLow (<2.40)3112.91mass mediaMedium (2.40 to 7.48)17673.33High (>7.48)3313.76ExtensionLow (<2.30)5322.08ParticipationMedium (2.31 to 9.72)13957.92High (>9.72)4820.00TrainingNo training17974.58ExposureTraining attended6125.42CosmopolitanLow (<2.96)4719.58outlookMedium (2.96-7.25)13255.00High (above 7.25)6125.42RiskLow (<16.12)6326.25orientationMedium (16.12 to 18.90)13355.42High (>18.90)4418.33InnovativeLow (<10.62)3514.58pronenessMedium (10.62 to 13.70)15464.17High (>13.70)5121.25  88Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 19 (4), October, 2019 cosmopolitan outlook. A similar pattern of results wasobtained by Shashidhara (2006) .A close observation of Table 1 shows thatmajority of the vegetable growers had medium level of risk orientation whereas, 26.25 per cent of respondentsfell in low level of risk orientation. It was also observedthat 42.19 per cent of the respondents had mediuminnovative proneness while 21.25 per cent of therespondents had high innovative proneness.  Association of independent variables with the adoptionof eco-friendly technologies :   Results presented in Table2 indicates that scientific orientation, training exposure,utilization of mass media and cosmopolitan outlook hadsignificant association with the adoption of eco-friendlytechnologies in vegetable cultivation at 5 per cent levelof significance. Remaining independent variables like age,education, annual income, size of family, farmingexperience, achievement motivation, economicorientation, innovative proneness and risk orientationdoes not had any association with adoption level.   Theimplications of the findings are similar to the findings of  Shashidhara (2006), Tambi and Tambi (2009)  and someof the other researchers like  Dohare (2007), Chowdharyand Ray (2010) as well as by  Maratha et al (2018). CONCLUSION From the findings it is inferred that initiatives mustbe taken at grassroots level for encouraging the farmersto adopt environmental friendly practices by providingintrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. For Table 2. Association between selected independentvariables with the level of adoption of eco-friendlytechnologies in vegetable cultivation. Variables    2 valueAge0.47 NS Education3.77  NS Occupation8.24  NS Annual income2.97  NS Land holding5.82  NS Size of family0.61  NS Farming experience0.45  NS Scientific orientation41.74**Achievement motivation3.59  NS Economic motivation3.11  NS Extension Participation6.75  NS Institutional participation7.64  NS Training Exposure24.58**Risk orientation0.83  NS Innovative proneness1.88  NS Cosmopolitan outlook18.77*Utilization of mass media9.11***Significant at 1 per cent level of significance;* Significant at 5 per cent level of significance implementing the strategy, cluster approach will beeffective. Since farmers will get chance to interact withvarious people as well as it helps in identifying theeconomically viable practices that can be implemented bymarginal and small farmers. This can help to improvevarious personal factors like achievement motivation, risk orientation and economic motivation within the farmers. REFERENCES Chowdhary, S. and Ray, P. (2010). Knowledge level and adoption of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM)techniques: A study among the vegetable growers of Katwa Sub-division, Bardhaman District.  Indian J.of Agril. Res., 44 (3):168-176.Dhakad, U. (2007). A study on management of eco-friendly practices by winter vegetable growers in Ghatigon block inGwalior district of Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis submitted to JNKVV, Jabalpur.Dohare. A.K. (2007). A study on knowledge about organic farming practices possessed by the farmer and their adoption of Khargoan district of Madhya Pradesh M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis submitted to JNKVV, Jabalpur, M.P.Maratha, P., and Badodiya, S. K. (2018). Study on adoption of eco-friendly management practices by vegetable growers of Ladpura block of Kota district in Rajasthan.  Intl., J. of Pure & Applied Bioscience, 6  (1), 1356-61.Shashidhara, K.K. (2006). A study on Management of Eco–friendly practices by Vegetable growers of North Karnataka.Ph.D Thesis submitted to University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.Tambi S.B and Tambi K.N. (2009). Stimulants and barriers of organic manures in horticultural crop in Melera in Malwaregion. Paper presented in National Seminar on Organic Farming. RVSKVV, Gwalior. Pp: 116-117.     
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