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At the Edge: Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai

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At the Edge: Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai
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  At the Edge Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai A. Nigel Goring-  orris Part BAR International Series 361 i) 1987  VOLUM I: Chapter I C hapter II C hapter C hapter IV C hapter v C hapter VI C hapter VII C hapter VIII C hapter IX VOLUM I I: C ha p ter X Ch ap ter XI Ap pendix I App endix II A pp en dix Appe ndix IV A pp endix v Bi bli og raphy TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Acknowledgements Introduction 1 27 Landscapes and Environment: Present and Past 28   44 Research Methodology 45 56 The Terminal Upper Palaeolithic and Kebaran 57 9 7 The Geometric Kebaran 98 145 The Mushabian Related Industries 146 203 The Ramon ian 204   256 The Desert Natufian 257   315 The Harifian 316 371 Inter entity Comparisons and Discussion 372   415 C onclusions 416 448 C14 dates for the Terminal Pleistocene in the Southern Levant Type List for the Upper Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic of the Southern Levant Attribute Analysis of lithic Assemblages Detailed Typological Counts of Lithic Assemblages Counts for Smallest Space Analyses 449 452 454 459 460 463 464 498 499 502 503 526 No te: the distribution maps of artefacts herein are based on the random placement of items within each excavation qua drat. * * *  Chapter I I  TRO U TION Since the late 1960's a series of research projects has been conducted in various regions of the Negev and Sinai Deserts in the State of Israel and the United Arab Republic, resulting in the discovery and documentation of a plethora of prehistoric sites. Amongst these are more than 28 which can be assigned to cultural en t ities dated between ca. 16,000 8000 b.c.* This interval corresponds to the end of the local Upper Palaeolithic and the Epipalaeolithic and constitutes a convenient and largely se lf  contained span for investigation; it both succeeds and precedes periods during which evidence for occupation of the region is scarce. At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, the possible dynamics of cultural interaction resulting from this location have been a principal attraction for prehistoric research (Figure I-1) . Preliminary analyses of the excavated assemblages in the Negev and Sinai have already revealed that several different lithic entities and traditions ca n be recognized, some of which are diachronic and others synchronic (Marks, 1976, 1977, 1983; Bar-Yosef and Phillips 1977; Bar-Yosef, 198la, nd) . While the srcins of some of these entities can be sought further north in Palestine, others appear to display North African characteristics and yet others may have developed autochthonously . Furthermore, during the course of the Epipalaeolithic oscillations in the intensity of occupation of the region can be discerned which have been interpreted as resulting from environmental fluctuations. Such a situation is of particular interest given the nature of the evolution of the Epipalaeolithic in the immediately adjacent regions of the Levant which culminated in the economic, sociological and technological innovations of what has come to be known as the Neolithic Revolution . The apparent parallel developments in both areas during much of the Epipalaeolithic beg the question as to why neither agriculture nor animal husbandry were adopted as subsistence strategies at this time in the Negev and Sinai . In view of the increasing awareness that many of the fundamental explanations of the Neolithic Revolution should be sought in the period immediately preceding it environmentally marginal zones, such as the Negev and Sinai, should provide ideal conditions for compara tive studies of the social dynamics and subsistence strategies in more environmentally favorable areas . Following convention in the later prehistory of the Near East all dates are given herein as uncalibrated radiocarbon years b. c. l  MEDITERR NE N 2 • h arga o m I 1 ap of the the location soo a\m y rd . 0 . ·~· } ·:. ._._ .. Nnm.:m .Azraq · ....... . l   ~ Southern Levant and the of the Negev and Sinai 4 Nile Valley Deserts in Figure showing relation to adjacent regions.  ME 01 E RRANEAN ~ ·· . ~: Figure I 2 Topographical map of the Negev and Sinai Deserts in 300m increments to 1500m Dunefields are displayed.
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