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Atkinson Shiffrin Model

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  Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search   Note that in this diagram, sensory memory is detached from either form of memory, and represents its development from short term and long term memory, due to its storage being used primarily on a run time basis for physical or psychosomatic reference. The Atkinson–Shiffrin model  (also known as the multi-store model  is a model of memory that has the advantage of being able to be broken down into sub-models of memory: the multi-memory model  and the Modal model  is a  psychological model proposed in ! #$ by %ichard &tkinson and %ichard 'hiffrin !)  as a proposal for the structure of memory* +t  proposed that human memory involves a seuence of three stages: 1. 'ensory memory (' 2. 'hort-term memory ('T 3. .ong-term memory (.T Contents hide) ã ! 'ummary  o !*! 'ensory memory o !*/ 'hort-term memory o !*0 .ong-term memory o !*1 +ll defined o !*2 .inearity o !*# onolithicity ã / .ater developments ã 0 'earch of &ssociative emory   o 0*! 'hort-term 'tore o 0*/ .ong-term 'tore o 0*0 %ecency 3ffects o 0*1 4roblems for the '& odel ã 1 'ee also ã 2 %eferences  o 2*! &dditional %eferences ã # Further reading ã 5 36ternal links [edit] Summary The srcinal /-stage model of the &tkinson7'hiffrin memory model8 lacking the 9sensory memory9 stage, which was devised at a later stage in researchThe multi-store model of memory is an e6planation of how memory processes work* ou hear, see, and feel many things, but only a small number are remembered* The model was first described by &tkinson and 'hiffrin in ! #$* 'ince &tkinson and 'hiffrin srcinally  proposed their dual-store model, it has undergone numerous ad;ustments and improvements* The most recent version of this model is called 'earch of &ssociative emory ('& (%aai;makers < 'hiffrin, ! $!* [edit] Sensory memory The sense organs have a limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed way for less than a second* The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli such as shape, si=e, colour and location (but not meaning, whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli* >oltheart et al* (! 51 have argued that the momentary free=ing of visual input allows us to select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing* +n this visual modality, information that enters the sensory store will be eliminated from the store within several hundred milliseconds (?addeley, ! ##*The e6istence of sensory memory has been e6perimentally demonstrated by 'perling (! #@ using a tachistoscope* [edit] Short-term memory  +nformation is retained acoustically and visually long enough to use it, e*g* looking up a telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it* 4eterson and 4eterson (! 2  have demonstrated that 'T last appro6imately between !2 and 0@ seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while iller (! 2# has found that 'T has a limited capacity of around 5A or B/ CchunksD of information* /)  'T also appears to mostly encode memory acoustically (in terms of sound as ?addeley (! ## has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images* Eowever in many cases 'T can be at a semantic level* +n addition to using the short-term store ('T' as the primary memory device when desired for certain tasks, such as remembering a telephone number after looking it up, the 'T' fulfills various other functions* +nstead of the memory system having to pay moment-to-moment attention to the environment to account for all environmental changes, the ('T' serves as a buffer and separates the environment form the memory system* +t also functions as a working memory in which alterations of information can occur* Eowever, these manipulations are only temporary (?addeley, ! ##* [edit] Long-term memory .T provides the lasting retention of information, from minutes to a lifetime* .ong term memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but it could never  be measured as it would take too long* .T information seems to be encoded mainly in terms of meaning (semantic memory as ?addeley has shown, but also retains procedural skills and imagery*emory may also be transported directly from sensory memory to .T if it receives instant attention, e*g* witnessing a fire in your house* This is known as a 9Flashbulb emory9* &nother e6ample of this is the fact that most people living in the nited 'tates at the time canrecall what they were doing on the day of 'eptember !!, /@@!, as it was the day of an e6treme event* %ecent research has shown, however, that 9flashbulb memory9 is not as reliable as it was once thought to be*  citation needed  ) &lso if information in the .T is not rehearsed it can be forgotten through trace decay* [edit] Ill defined To obtain a ualitatively correct fit of the bowing four model concepts have to work together* G.ong term memoryH is needed in the short term memory e6periment, conscious or subconscious rehearsal of four items has to take place, this Grehearsal bufferH has to drop items randomly rather than according to a first-in firstout model, and the rehearsal buffer has to be empty before the e6periment starts* ?eyond the ualitative fit to the bowed recall curves, other relationships in the data are not borne out by the model* First, the Gprimacy strengthH, the ratio of the probability of recall of the first item to the smallest probability of recall of an intermediate item, shows a significant e6perimental variation with presentation rate but no such variation is predicted by theory* 'econd, randomly emptying the rehearsal  buffer predicts incorrectly that the number of recalled items should be the highest when the first recalled item is the last list item* Third, a simplified &tkinson7'hiffrin model is found to  predict e6act relationships between the recall probabilities of the initial items which do not seem to be borne out by the urdock data* Fourth, the theory predicts a discontinuity in the differences between free recall graphs with different presentation rates for early list items  which is probably not found in the urdock data* 'ee Tarnow (/@@ : http:IIwww*webmedcentral*comIarticleviewI!@/! [edit] Linearity 'ome argue that the multi-store model is too linear   citation needed    ) , i*e*, that it cannot accommodatesubdivisions of 'T and .T memory stores  citation needed  )  *The concept of the 9stream of memory9 in this model has been suggested to lack internal consistency  citation needed  )  , as, by definition, the stream of memory often discarded for newer information, often with little or emphasis on the salience on the new information  citation needed  )  * &supposed e6ample of this was found in the asymptote of control data, revealing primacy and recency effects (with information recalled better when presented early or late in the test stream, overshadowing the asymptote  citation needed  )  * This suggests a need to e6plain decay  processes in memory  citation needed  ) * +t has been suggested that the idea of 0 separate areas for memory storage may emerge from neuronal processes such as rates of firing  citation needed  )  , as well as the idea of the 9ionised sodium gate9 model of action potentials  citation needed    ) *+n the case of sensory memory, the model, which is psychological, does not provide a ready e6planation for the observed asynchronous nature of neural activity occurring between anatomical structures  citation needed    )  7 an e6ample of this would be the reference to sensory memory being used to perform physical processes such as motor function, which suggests that once an action is performed, it is remembered for 0 seconds and then begins a process of rapid decay  citation needed  )  * [edit]  Monolithicity The &tkinson7'hiffrin model distinguishes different forms of memory, but it does not take into account what information is presented  citation needed  ) , nor does it take into account individual differences in sub;ectKs performance including a cognitive ability, or previous e6perience withlearning techniues  citation needed  ) *Whilst case studies of individuals (such as >live Wearing have been reported indicating that memory can be severely damaged independent of at least some other cognitive capacities  citation needed  ) , there is less support from case studies of developmental models for the supposed tri-partite memory structure  citation needed    ) * 'ome have argued that autistic savant  performance may violate predictions from the model, based on an ability to recall precise information without the need for rehearsal  citation needed  ) , and without evidence for decay  citation needed  ) * [edit] Later developments The advent of the model provided a testable framework for subseuent work, and a strong stimulus for the e6periemental study of human memory  citation needed  ) * This has led to the model  being superseded  citation needed  ) * Lewer models include the possibility for cases where short-term memory is impaired, but long-term memory is not (which is impossible in the basic model, asinformation can only become encoded in long-term memory after passing through the unitaryshort-term store*
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