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  Questions 11-13 refer to the following passage. 11. The most familiar speleothems (from the Greek word spelaion for the cave and thema for deposit), the decorative dripstone features found in caves, are stalactites and stalagmites. Stalactites hang downward from the ceiling of the cave and are formed as drop after drop of water slowly trickles through crack on the cave roof. Stalagmites grow upward from the floor of the cave, generally as a result of water dripping from an overhead stalactite. A column forms when a stalactite and a stalagmite grow until they oin. A !curtain or !drapery #egins to form on an inclined ceiling when drops of water trickle along a slope. $atural openings on the surface that lead to caves are called sinkholes. or swallow holes. Streams sometimesdisappear down these holes and flow through the cavern. %ivers may flow from one mountain to another through a series of caves . Some caverns have sinkholes in their floors. &ater often #uilds up a rim of dripstonearound the edge of the hole. 'ripping water often contains dissolved minerals as well as acid. These mineralstoo will #e deposited and they may give rich coloring to the deposits. f minerals in the water change, layers of different colors may #e formed.11.Stalagmites are formed #y *(A) drops of water which enter through cracks in the ceiling.(+) underground rivers which flow through the cave.() water dripping from an overhead stalactite.(') water which trickles down a slope.(-) water dripping from downhead stalactite1. Sinkholes are *(A) the decorative dripstone features found in caves.(+) natural openings on the surface that lead to caves.() colorful layers of mineral deposits.  (') $one of the a#ove(-) red layer of mineral deposits1/. &hich speleothem grows upward from the floor0(A) Stalagmites(+) Stalactites() Sinkholes(') urtains(-) oles Questions 14-17 refer to the following passage. orse owner who plan to #reed one or more mares should have a working knowledge of heredity andknow how to carefor #reeding animals and foals. The num#er of mares #red that actually conceive varies froma#out 23 to 45 percent, with the average running less than 53 percent. Some mares that do conceive fail to produce living foals. This means that, on average, two mares are kept a whole year to produce one foal, andeven then, some foals are disappointments from the standpoint of 6uality.+y careful selection, #reeders throughout history have developed various kinds of horses with a wide variety of characteristics to suit many different needs. The Great orse of the 7iddle Ages, for e8ample was #red for si9eand strength to carry a heavily armored knight. The massive horses of such #reeds are often called !cold #looded. The Ara#s #red lithe dessert horses that were small and swift. These animal are often referred to as!hot #looded. ross:#reeding of hot #looded and cold:#looded horses for certain characteristics produced #reeds ranging from riding horses to draft horses.The Thorough#red id considered #y many to #e high point of elegance and fine selective #reeding. 7any person mistakenly apply the name Thorough#red to any pure#red horse. +ut a Thorough#red is a distinct #reedof running horses that traces its ancestry through the male line directly #ack to three -astern stallions; the  +yerly Turk, the 'arley Ara#ian, and the Godolphin +ar#. <or convenience the #reeds of horses are oftendivided into three maor groups; (1) ponies, () heavy, or draft horses, and (/) light horses.12. &hich of the following is not an e8ample of an -astern stallion0(A) +yerly Turk (+) 'arley Ara#ian() Thorough#red(') Godolphin +ar#(-) =ony15. &hich of the following was $>T a characteristic of the Great orse of the 7iddle Ages0(A) ?argesi9e(+) Swiftness() Strength(') !old:#loodedness (-) $one of a#ove1@. t can #e inferred from the passage that cold:#looded and hot:#looded horses were cross:#res for whatreason0(A) Such cross:#reeding was a safer means of reproduction.(+) ross:#red horses were preferred #y Ara#s.()+y cross:#reeding, horses with desira#le mi8ed characteristic could #e produced.(') ross:#reeding produced Thorough#red horses.(-) ross #reeding =ony horses  1. According to the passage, which of the following horses is considered to #e the finest pure#red0(A) 'arley Ara#ian(+) Thorough#red() Godolphin +ar#(') +yerly Turk (-) =ony Questions 18-20 refer to the following passage. &e #elieve the -arth is a#out 2.@ #illion years old. At percent we are forced to look to other #odies in the solar system for hints as to what the early history of the -arth was like. Studies of our moon, 7ercury, 7ars, and thelarge satelites of Bupiter and Saturn have provided ample evidence that all these large celestial #odies hadformed. This same #om#ardment must have affected -arth as well. The lunar record indicates that the rate of impacts decreased to its present low level a#out 2 #illion years ago. >n -arth, su#se6uent erosion and crustalmotions have o#literated the craters that must have formed during this epoch.Scientists estimate the -arthCs age #y measuring the ratios of various radioactive elements in rocks. The oldest-arthCs rocks tested thus far are a#out / 1D/ #illion years old. +ut no one knows whether these are oldest rockson -arth. Tests on rocks form the moon and on meteorites show that these are a#out 2.@ #illion years old.Scientists #elieve that this is the true age of the solar system and pro#a#ly the true age of the -arth.14. n line 4, the word !o#literated means(A) created(+) destroyed() changed(') eroded
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