Badlands Illustrated Design Guidelines

Badlands Design GuidelinesCedar Pass Developed Area Badlands National Park, SD 2017Table of Contents1Project Statement52Historical Context113Significance, Integrity…
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Badlands Design GuidelinesCedar Pass Developed Area Badlands National Park, SD 2017Table of Contents1Project Statement52Historical Context113Significance, Integrity & Condition554Statement of Desired Future Conditions735Primary Treatment Approach836General Guidelines917Appendix127Section 1 | Project Statement1 | Project Statement The Cedar Pass Developed Area (Cedar Pass) of Badlands National Park (BADL) is the primary visitor contact center within the park and was developed during the earlyto mid- twentieth century, following a trend of early tourism in South Dakota, New Deal-era infrastructure improvements, and the Mission 66 program of the National Park Service (NPS). Cedar Pass was determined eligible for listing as a district on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and was identified as a cultural landscape in 2005. During the decade following the 2005 determination of eligibility, the NPS identified a need for greater preservation planning for Cedar Pass. In 2014, the NPS began a partnership with the University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture (UTSOA) and the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center (LBJWC) (a research unit of the UTSOA) through a cooperative agreement. The partnership was designed to engage graduatelevel design, planning, and preservation students through the studio process and focused on two outcomes: 1) creative design work accomplished through a studio course, and 2) a set of historic preservation guidelines and recommendations. Both outcomes focused on four areas within Cedar Pass: the visitor center, the lodge, housing needs, and the overall landscape. Within these four areas of focus, student work was accomplished through a framework of recommendations centered on cultural landscape preservation, improved visitor experience and accessibility, and resilient design solutions. The design studio portion of the partnership occurred in fall, 2015. A total of 13 students from the fields of historic preservation, architecture, landscape architecture, and planning participated in the course supported by UT faculty and staff. Faculty and staff members were from the fields of historic preservation planning, architecture, landscape architecture, and ecology. The students began their semester with a 10-day site visit to the park. Meeting the park and regional office staff, students gathered information needed to sustain the project throughout the semester. The culmination of the studio coursework was presented in December, 2015 at UT Austin. The following historic preservation guidelines and recommendations serve to fulfill the second product created through the partnership with the NPS and UT Austin. The document goals include: a statement of desired future conditions for Cedar Pass; a primary treatment approach; general design guidelines; and an implementation strategy. These topics are supported and presented with reference to the historic context of Cedar Pass, applicable laws and guidance for NPS historic properties, and design concepts created during the Badlands Centennial Studio.Badlands National Park | Design Guidelines5Badlands National ParkNational Park Service Mission HISTORIC PRESERVATION LAW Antiquities Act of 1906 “…[A]ny person who shall appropriate, excavate, injure, or destroy any historic or prehistoric ruin or monument, or any object of antiquity, situated on lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States, without the permission of the Secretary of the Department of the Government having jurisdiction over the lands on which said antiquities are situated, shall, upon conviction, be fined… or be imprisoned…, or shall suffer both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.”Organic Act of 1916 “The service thus established shall promote and regulate the use of the Federal areas known as national parks, monuments, and reservations hereinafter specified by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental purposes of the said parks, monuments, and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”National Environmental Policy Act of1969 The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires that federal agencies take all aspects of the environment into account when making decisions, including historic, cultural and natural resources.6Badlands National Park | Design GuidelinesThe National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.National Historic Preservation Act (1966, As Amended: 1976, 1980, 1992) The National Historic Preservation act was enacted in 1966 to ensure the protection of federal historic and cultural resources. The Act was amended three times: 1976 | Extended NHPA consideration from properties listed on the National Register to properties eligible to be listed on the National Register. 1980 | Added Section 110. 1992 | Extended additional protections to tribal resources. Section 106 | Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires Federal agencies to take into account the effects of their undertakings on historic properties and afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment. Section 110 | Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act calls on all federal agencies to establish their own historic preservation program for the identification, evaluation, and protection of historic properties. It also charges each Federal agency with the responsibility for considering projects and programs that further the purposes of the NHPA.Section 1 | Project Statement“It is the policy of the Federal Government, in cooperation with other nations and in partnership with States, local governments, Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and private organizations and individuals, to — 1 | use measures, including financial and technical assistance, to foster conditions under which our modern society and our historic property can exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations;controlled historic property in a spirit of stewardship for the inspiration and benefit of present and future generations; 4 | contribute to the preservation of nonfederally owned historic property and give maximum encouragement to organizations and individuals undertaking preservation by private means; 5 | encourage the public and private preservation and utilization of all usable elements of the Nation’s historic built environment; and2 | provide leadership in the preservation of the historic property of the United States and of the international community of nations and in the administration of the national preservation program;6 | assist State and local governments, Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations, and the National Trust to expand and accelerate their historic preservation programs and activities.”3 | administer federally owned, administered, or(Pub. L. 113–287, § 3, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3187.)Badlands National Park | Design Guidelines7Section 1 | Project StatementParticipants This project is the result of a unique collaboration between the National Park Service—including the Midwest Regional Office and Badlands National Park—The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, and the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.National Park ServiceLady Bird Johnson Wildflower CenterMike Reynolds Patricia Trap Mike Pflaum Bill Harlow Megan Cherry Julie McGilvray Marla McEnaney Christine Czazasty Dwayne Travis Pam Livermont Nancy RimeMatt O'Toole John Hart Asher Michelle Bertelsen Michelle BrightThe University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture Kelsey Riddle Hannah Simonson Michael Holleran Benjamin Ibarra Sevilla Allan Sheerer Sarah WuBadlands National Park | Design Guidelines9Section 2 | Historical Context2 | Historical Context The Badlands’ most significant feature is its vivid portrayal of the erosion process, which, through time, has created the colorful grandeur of the landscape seen today. No less important is the story told by the fossil bones of prehistoric animals, and the physical evidence of continuing human occupation. This despite the fact that fluctuating extreme seasonal temperatures and high wind speeds, combined with the harsh physical features of sod tables, eroded buttes, and deeply etched drainageways have made for decidedly inhospitable living conditions in the area. The name “Badlands” has been perpetuated through descriptions of the place by early travelers, inhabitants, and other visitors, many of whom gave it names with dark connotations: American Indians named the Badlands region Mako Sica, while French explorers referred to it as Mauvais Terres, both of which can be directly translated as ‘bad lands.’ Although evidence of regional land usage prior to the 19th century is scant, the accounts of early European travelers, in conjunction with recently completed archeological investigations, help to suggest the ways in which humans have used this challenging land. European contact began with French exploration during the 18th century. These geologic and paleontological discoveries led to more serious scientific investigation. Scientific investigation and expeditions paralleled and fed into national westward expansion and settlement. Later, these in turn led to a growing tourist industry as scientists published their findings and a more general public became aware of the wonder to be found in the Badlands. During the early 1900s, two men in particular—State Senator Peter Norbeck, and Ben Millard, a prominent local businessman—laid the groundwork for creating a national park at the Badlands; Senator Norbeck focused on enabling legislation, while Millard focused on creating visitor facilities. Much of this early work strongly influenced the planning of Cedar Pass during later years. Norbeck’s plan for the loop road, which began at Cedar Pass and wound up into the Badlands, provided a logical place at which to develop facilities. Once Ben Millard had constructed concessionaire facilities at Cedar Pass it seemed appropriate to continue development at this same site rather than establishing a new site further into the Badlands. Today, much of the Cedar Pass development reflects decisions made during the New Deal era when the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed infrastructure for the National Monument. Even though many of the earlier buildings do not survive, planning at Cedar Pass still follows the tenets of 1930s planning principles. Mission 66 design and planning efforts in the 1950s and 1960s built on this earlier work, and helped to establish the site’s contemporary landscape character.Badlands National Park | Design Guidelines11Badlands National ParkEstablishing the Monument & Early Tourism 1909 - 1938 In March 1909, State Senator Peter Norbeck pledged his support for various groups urging the State House and Senate to approve a joint resolution requesting the US Congress to set aside a national park in the South Dakota Badlands. Norbeck, who was born into a farming family in Clay County in southeastern South Dakota, had a personal interest in protecting the lands he had grown up hearing about. While his father had been a member of the 1871 Dakota Territorial Legislature that helped settle the area, Peter Norbeck’s career coincided with other early efforts to enact conservation legislation and develop a system of national conservation areas and parks in the West. The resolution supported by Norbeck in 1909 read as follows: Whereas there is a small section of country about the headwaters of the White River in South Dakota where Nature has carved the surface of the earth into most unique and interesting forms, and has exposed there,in the geological formations to an extent, perhaps not elsewhere found; and whereas this formation is so unique, picturesque and valuable for the purposes of study that a portion should be retained in its native state, therefore be it resolved by the House of Representatives, the Senate concurring; That Congress be and hereby is requested to provide that the Secretary of the Interior shall select township of government land in the most picturesque portion of the region mentioned and the same shall be set aside and be kept as a National Park. The wording in this resolution is important, as, over the years, the designation of parkland became increasingly complicated as legislators quibbled over how to select lands exhibiting scenery of “supreme and distinctive quality or some natural feature so extraordinary or unique as to be of national interest and importance. Congress was increasingly reluctant, primarily for financial reasons, to confer the status of “national park” onto just any piece of land, but Senator Norbeck continued to campaign for recognition of the importance of the Badlands. In 1911, he traveled to1909 Peter Norbeck pledges support to create a national park in the South Dakota Badlands12Badlands National Park | Design GuidelinesSection 2 | Historical Contextthe Badlands to see for himself the reality of what he had heard and read about. The US Forest Service was also interested in setting aside the area as a national park. In 1919, Louis Knowles, a Forest Ranger for the Harney District of the Black Hills National Forest, set out for the Badlands in search of sites suitable for federal “Game Parks or Preserves.” He discovered a land ravaged by constant plowing and featuring virtually no wildlife due to excessive hunting. Very few trees remained, as many had been cut down for fencing. Most farms had failed and their occupants had moved on. Those farmers remaining had consolidated into larger farms or ranches that were often over-grazed. Knowles noted that numerous fences blocked the view of the Badlands Wall, a dramatic and irregular cliff paralleling the north bank of the White River for nearly sixty miles, which was a favorite Badlands hiking spot. Knowles also noted that visitation to the Badlands in 1919 had increased greatly over the years. Many visitors came via railroad, but some traveled State Route 40 (the Washington Highway) that connected the towns of Scenic and Interior with Rapid City, although much of this road, which followed more or less the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, was still under construction in1919. Knowles quickly determined that the federal government should identify the area to be included within the park or Monument boundaries, and restrict public access to the land for grazing and other private commercial activities pending park establishment. He also proposed constructing a road along the Wall that would allow greater numbers of visitors to experience the scenic views of the Badlands. In May 1922, Peter Norbeck, who had by this time been elected to the US Senate, introduced a bill for establishing a national park at the Badlands. Despite the fact that Congressman Williamson introduced an identical bill in the House of Representatives on the same day, neither one of these bills were passed. Norbeck explained the situation in a letter to a constituent as follows: …regarding the Bad Lands National Park, [I] will state that the Park Service here will not approve a bill of that kind, — and therefore, we can not secure the legislation. They are, however, willing to approve the plan of having it designated by the President as a “National Monument.”1922 Peter Norbeck introduces a bill to establish a national park in the South Dakota Badlands Badlands National Park | Design Guidelines13Badlands National ParkOne of the problems with creating a national monument at Badlands was the need to increase the number of acres that the government could incorporate into a public recreation facility. The bulk of the property in the area was privately owned and the NPS hesitated to fully push for creating a national park. Senator Norbeck explained the situation in a 1927 letter: The Park program is not as easy as it seems on account of so much of the land having gone into Private ownership. The Federal Government will not purchase land for park purposes. They never have. The State must and that will come slow. In July 1928, Norbeck joined a group of fellow Senators and National Park Service (NPS) officials on a trip to inspect proposed parks in the Dakotas and Wyoming. Their trip included a dinner stop at Ben Millard’s hotel, located in the vicinity of the Wall, and a spectacle of Indian dance at Interior, South Dakota. A resulting report from this trip concluded that the Badlands formations did not match those of the Grand Canyon, were less spectacular than Bryce Canyon, and therefore could not be awarded national park status. For his part, despite disappointment that1927 Cedar Pass Lodge Built14Badlands National Park | Design Guidelinesthe Badlands area could only be granted “monument” status, Senator Norbeck insisted that the state of South Dakota construct a highway through the proposed Badlands park and purchase most of the privately owned land, in the hope that this would ensure prompt tourism development of the site and full state cooperation. Finally, in 1929, President Coolidge authorized the creation of Badlands National Monument, comprising some 50,830 acres. Establishment of the Monument stipulated that land would be acquired and roads built at the state’s expense. Only after these conditions had been met to the satisfaction of the US President, could a proclamation be issued and the lands be dedicated as described. This bill also stipulated that the Department of the Interior could grant hotel and lodge franchises prior to fulfillment of the conditions. With the onset of the Great Depression, conditions for developing the Monument at Badlands looked bleak. It took several programs created by President Roosevelt to provide incentives and financial means to support further development. In June 1933, under executive order #6166, the monuments and public grounds of the nation’s capital, an assortment of national monuments previously under the USSection 2 | Historical ContextForest Service, and many battlefields and military cemeteries previously under the war department were brought under the stewardship and management of the NPS. Furthermore, in 1934, under a cooperative agreement with the new Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), the NPS assumed leadership for nationwide recreational planning and began to develop model parks called recreational demonstration areas on land considered sub-marginal for agriculture. FERA provided the funding necessary for the government to acquire land that was otherwise unsuitable for agriculture but could be developed as public parkland. In addition to funding land purchases, it supported the establishment of recreational facilities by demonstrating how recreational facilities could be planned and developed. Much of the land required to create a monument at Badlands was located in the public domain but a large area adjacent to the Monument was still owned by homesteaders who had left the area after continual battles with drought and other natural disasters. A federal government report determined that 60 percent of this land should be considered sub-marginal and “generally unsuited to agricultural uses… with someof it “so badly eroded that it will not maintain a grass and hence is wasteland except for its recreational and scenic beauty.” Support and interest in purchasing land for the N
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