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bahan ajar morfology.docx

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Word Formation: Compounding, Clipping, and Blending written by: Heather Marie Kosur ã edited by: Tricia Goss ã updated: 11/8/2012 The word formation processes of compounding, clipping, and blending are important concepts when creating words. Also included for download are vocabulary lists of common English compounds, clipped words, and blends.  Compounding Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes combine into a single new word. Compound wor
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  Word Formation: Compounding, Clipping, and Blending written by: Heather Marie Kosur ã edited by: Tricia Goss ã updated: 11/8/2012   The word formation processes of compounding, clipping, and blending are important concepts when creating words. Also included for download are vocabulary lists of common English compounds, clipped words, and blends.    Compounding Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes combine into a single new word. Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. For example:    noun- noun compound: note + book → notebook   red coat(angkatan bersenjata)    laptop    arm chair    adjective- noun compound: blue + berry → blueberry      verb-noun compound: work + room → workroom      noun- verb compound: breast + feed → breastfeed      verb- verb compound: stir + fry → stir  -fry    adjective- verb compound: high + light → highlight      verb-  preposition compound: break + up → breakup       preposition- verb compound: out + run → outrun      adjective- adjective compound: bitter + sweet → bittersweet       preposition-  preposition compound: in + to → into  Compounds may be compositional, meaning that the meaning of the new word is determined by combining the meanings of the parts, or noncompositional, meaning that the meaning of the new word cannot be determined by combining the meanings of the parts. For example, a blueberry  is a berry that is blue. However, a breakup  is not a relationship that was severed into pieces in an upward direction. Free Games For Android   mobogenie.com/download     Download Them With Our PC Suite. None will charges a fee. Ads by Google     Compound nouns should not be confused with nouns modified by adjectives, verbs, and other nouns. For example, the   adjective black   of the noun phrase black bird   is different from the adjective black   of the compound noun blackbird   in that black   of black bird   functions as a noun phrase modifier while the black   of blackbird   is an inseparable part of the noun: a black bird also refers to any bird that is black in color while a blackbird is a specific type of bird.    Clipping Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word. Clipping differs from back-formation in that the new word retains the meaning of the srcinal word. For example:    advertisement  –   ad    alligator  –   gator    examination  –   exam    gasoline  –   gas    gymnasium  –   gym    influenza  –   flu    laboratory  –   lab    mathematics  –   math     memorandum  –   memo     photograph  –   photo     public house  –   pub    raccoon  –   coon    reputation  –   rep    situation comedy  –   sitcom    telephone  –   phone The four types of clipping are back clipping, fore-clipping, middle clipping, and complex clipping. Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in  gas  from  gasoline . Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in  gator   from alligator  . Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in  flu  from influenza . Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in  sitcom  from  situation comedy .    Blending,SAME AS LIKE COMPOUNDING.BUT PART OF THE WORD Deleted,usually 1st partof1stword+end of 2nd word Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more words combine to create a new word whose meaning is often a combination of the srcinal words. For example:    advertisement + entertainment → advertainment     biographical + picture → biopic       breakfast + lunch → brunch      chuckle + snort → chortle      cybernetic + organism → cyborg      guess + estimate → guesstimate      hazardous + material → hazmat      motor + hotel → motel  motor bergerak     prim + sissy → prissy      simultaneous + broadcast → simulcast      smoke + fog → smog      Spanish + English → Spanglish      spoon + fork → spork       telephone + marathon → telethon      web + seminar → webinar       agitprop(agitation+propaganda)    camcorder(camera+recorder)    docudrama(documentary+drama)    infotainment(information+ENTERTAINMENT)    wireless+fidelity=wi-fy Blended words are also referred to as portmanteaus.    Printable Downloads For more complete lists of English words formed through compounding, clipping, and blending, please download the following free printable vocabulary lists:    Compound Noun List: English Compound Nouns      List of English Clipped Words    List of English Blend Words   WORD FORMATION: CREATING NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH  The articles in this series define and exemplify the most common word formation processes, or the creation of new words, in English including derivation, back-formation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms, eponyms, coinages, nonce words, borrowing, and calquing. 1.   Word Formation: Derivation and Back-Formation  2.   Word Formation: Conversion  3.   Word Formation: Compounding, Clipping, and Blending     4.   Word Formation: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Eponyms  5.   Word Formation: Coinages, Nonce Words, Borrowing, and Calquing   BORROWING    Loanwords  are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language (the source language ). A loanword can also be called a borrowing . The abstract noun borrowing  refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language. Loan and borrowing are of course metaphors, because there is no literal lending process. There is no transfer from one language to another, and no returning words to the source language. The words simply come to be used by a speech community that speaks a different language from the one these words srcinated in. Borrowing is a consequence of cultural contact between two language communities. Borrowing of words can go in both directions between the two languages in contact, but often there is an asymmetry, such that more words go from one side to the other. In this case the source language community has some advantage of power, prestige and/or wealth that makes the objects and ideas it brings desirable and useful to the borrowing language community. For example, the Germanic tribes in the first few centuries A.D. adopted numerous loanwords from Latin as they adopted new products via trade with the Romans. Few Germanic words, on the other hand, passed into Latin. The actual process of borrowing is complex and involves many usage events (i.e. instances of use of the new word). Generally, some speakers of the borrowing language know the source language too, or at least enough of it to utilize the relevant word. They (often consciously) adopt the new word when speaking the borrowing language, because it most exactly fits the idea they are trying to express. If they are bilingual in the source language, which is often the case, they might pronounce the words the same or similar to the way they are pronounced in the source language. For example, English speakers adopted the word garage  from French, at first with a pronunciation nearer to the French pronunciation than is now usually found. Presumably the very first speakers who used the word in English knew at least some French and heard the word used by French speakers, in a French-speaking context. Those who first use the new word might use it at first only with speakers of the source language who know the word, but at some point they come to use the word with those to  whom the word was not previously known. To these speakers the word may sound 'foreign'.  At this stage, when most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language, the word can be called a  foreign word  . There are many foreign words and phrases used in English such as bon vivant   (French), mutatis mutandis  (Latin), and  Fahrvergnuegen  (German). However, in time more speakers can become familiar with a new foreign word or expression. The community of users of this word can grow to the point where even people who know little or nothing of the source language understand, and even use, the novel word themselves.  The new word becomes conventionalized  : part of the conventional ways of speaking in the  borrowing language. At this point we call it a borrowing or loanword. (It should be noted that not all foreign words do become loanwords; if they fall out of use  before they become widespread, they do not reach the loanword stage.) Conventionalization is a gradual process in which a word progressively permeates a larger and larger speech community, becoming part of ever more people's linguistic repetoire. As part of its becoming more familiar to more people, a newly borrowed word gradually adopts sound and other characteristics of the borrowing language as speakers who do not know the source language accommodate it to their own linguistic systems. In time, people in the  borrowing community do not perceive the word as a loanword at all. Generally, the longer a  borrowed word has been in the language, and the more frequently it is used, the more it resembles the native words of the language. English has gone through many periods in which large numbers of words from a particular language were borrowed. These periods coincide with times of major cultural contact  between English speakers and those speaking other languages. The waves of borrowing during periods of especially strong cultural contacts are not sharply delimited, and can overlap. For example, the Norse influence on English began already in the 8th century A.D. and continued strongly well after the Norman Conquest brought a large influx of Norman French to the language. It is part of the cultural history of English speakers that they have always adopted loanwords from the languages of whatever cultures they have come in contact with. There have been few periods when borrowing became unfashionable, and there has never been a national academy in Britain, the U.S., or other English-speaking countries to attempt to restrict new loanwords, as there has been in many continental European countries. The following list is a small sampling of the loanwords that came into English in different periods and from different languages. I. Germanic period    Latin The forms given in this section are the Old English ones. The srcinal Latin source word is given in parentheses where significantly different. Some Latin words were themselves srcinally borrowed from Greek. It can be deduced that these borrowings date from the time  before the Angles and Saxons left the continent for England, because of very similar forms found in the other old Germanic languages (Old High German, Old Saxon, etc.). The source  words are generally attested in Latin texts, in the large body of Latin writings that were preserved through the ages. ancor 'anchor' butere 'butter' (L < Gr. butyros) cealc 'chalk' ceas 'cheese' (caseum) cetel 'kettle' cycene 'kitchen' cirice 'church' (ecclesia < Gr. ecclesia) disc 'dish' (discus)
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