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Battling for corporate accountability: experiences from Titanium Mining Campaign in Kwale, Kenya

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Battling for corporate accountability: experiences from Titanium Mining Campaign in Kwale, Kenya
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  1  Battling for CorporateAccountability: Experiences from Titanium Mining Campaign inKwale, Kenya A paper presented at the Institute of DevelopmentStudies, University of Sussex Seminar on LinkingRights and Participation: Sharing Experiences andOpportunities29 th May 2002 Elphas Victor Ojiambo 1   1 IDS Participation Group Learning Fellow, Citizen Participation in Human Rights Advocacy  and Policy Research Co-ordinator, ActionAid Kenya (Coast Region). The views presented inthis paper are my own and do not represent the views of ActionAid Kenya. This paper wascopy-edited and proof-read by Dominic Glover at IDS, in consultation with the author. Anyerrors or omissions remain the responsibility of the author.  2  First they ignore you.Then they laugh at you.Then they fight you.Then you win. – M. K. Gandhi  3 Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................3   LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES AND BOXES....................................................5   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................6   INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................7   PART I – BACKGROUND.............................................................................11   The Kenyan economy..........................................................................................11   Titanium mining and Kenya’s ailing economy......................................................12   Mineral presence in Kenya...................................................................................14   Tiomin – the project proponent.............................................................................17   Commissioning the environmental impact assessment................................................19    The problems of the Tiomin deal..........................................................................19   Importance of environmental impact assessment.........................................................21   Adequate and just compensation..................................................................................21   Environmental Management Plan and Resettlement Action Plan................................22    Absence of an Economic Analysis................................................................................22    Impacts on underground water resources....................................................................22    Possible radioactivity.....................................................................................................23    Development of a ship loading facility at Shimoni.........................................................23    Genesis of the anti-titanium campaign.................................................................23   PART II – A CONCOCTION OF STRATEGIES............................................26   Strategy one – Understanding the legal framework.............................................27   The problem of outdated laws.......................................................................................27    The Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999.....................................29    Litigation........................................................................................................................32    Strategy two – Alliance building and networking..................................................38   Local level alliances......................................................................................................39    National level alliances..................................................................................................40    International alliances...................................................................................................41   Strategy three – Research: gathering and dissemination....................................42   The parallel EIA.............................................................................................................43    Creating spaces around the study................................................................................44    Strategy four – Media advocacy...........................................................................48   Strategy five – The internet..................................................................................51   Tiomin’s response.........................................................................................................52    Strategy six – Putting pressure on Tiomin’s financial advisors............................53   PART III - LESSONS LEARNT.....................................................................55   Conclusion............................................................................................................57   BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................................................59   APPENDIX 1.................................................................................................63   Community time line.............................................................................................63   APPENDIX 2.................................................................................................65   International Conventions.....................................................................................65    4 APPENDIX 3.................................................................................................69   Specific demands placed by the community on the government and Tiomin,arising from the Conference on titanium..............................................................69    5 List of Tables, Figures and Boxes Table 1: Breakdown of mineral sand deposits along Kenya’s coastline  ....................15  Figure 1: Campaign Strategies  .................................................................................26   Box 1: A chronology of events surrounding the titanium campaign  25 Box 2. Key provisions of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999  30
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