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BAZELE MINERITULUI Tarnovschi

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Universitatea Tehnică a Moldovei Facultatea Cadastru, Geodezie şi Construcţii Catedra Geodezie, Cadastru şi Geotehnică BAZELE MINERITULUI Ciclu de prelegeri Prezentul ciclu de prelegeri “Bazele mineritului” este destinat studenţilor de la specialitatea exploatării miniere (IMZM). În prezenta lucrare sunt examinate: principiile, noţiunile conceptuale ale mineritului, factorii de influenţă şi metodele de prospectare, explorare şi exploatare a zăcămintelor
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    ]dcqmz~cvevme Vmhdcn Ď e Bkifkqmc Aen}ivevme Nefe~vz}) @mkfmwcm ś c Nkd~vz}n Ů ccNevmfze @mkfmwcm) Nefe~vz} ś c @mkvmhdcn Ď   JEWMIM BCDMZCV]I]C  Ncni} fm |zmim`mzc Nhc ś cd Ď }]$V$B$:<<0  : NW] ==>( <0=$8#V :> \zmwmdv}i ncni} fm |zmim`mzc ’Jewmim bcdmzcv}i}c‒m~vm fm~vcdev ~v}fmd Ů cikz fm ie ~|mnceicvevme mx|ikev Ď zcc bcdcmzm(CBWB#$Äd |zmwmdve i}nzezm ~}dv mxebcdevm7 |zcdnc|ccim) dk Ů c}dcimnkdnm|v}eim eim bcdmzcv}i}c) aenvkzcc fm cdai}md ŮĎ   ś c bmvkfmimfm |zk~|mnvezm) mx|ikzezm ś c mx|ikevezm e w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim }vcim$  E}vkz7 N$Vezdkq~nhc    Zmfenvkz zm~|kd~ejci7 nkda$ }dcq$) fz$ N$Vezdkq~nhc    Zmnmdwmdv7 imnvkz ~}|mzckz Q$ N}nk ś   FM^NZCMZME NC\E E NEBMZMC DE Ū CKDEIM E N Ċ Z Ū CC Vezdkq~nhc) Nkd~vedvcd Jewmim bcdmzcv}i}c 7 Ncni} fm |zmim`mzc + Nkd~vedvcd Vezdkq~nhc? ]dcq$ Vmhd$ e Bkifkqmc$Aen$ Nefe~vz}) @mkfmwcm ś c Nkd~vz}n Ů cc$ Nevmfze@mkfmwcm) Nefe~vz} ś c @mkvmhdcn Ď $ Nh$ 7 ]VB):<<0$ 510 |$Jcjick`z$ |$ 511 510 ( 53vcv$#C^JD 308 330= 6= <=0 00= mx $£ ]$V$B$):<<0   ==>( <0=$8#  >   N}|zcd~ \zmae ŮĎ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$0 Vmbe 5$ N}dk ś vcd Ů m `mdmzeim fm~|zm bcdmzcv$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$8 5$5$Dk Ů c}dc `mdmzeim fm~|zm bcdmzcv$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$85$:$ ^n}zv c~vkzcn fm~|zm fmwqkivezmebcdmzcv}i}c$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$5<5$>$Nie~cacnezme zkncikz }vcim f}| Ď nkb|kdmd Ů e nhcbcn Ď $$$$$$$$$$$5: Vmbe :$ Dk Ů c}dc fm `mkik`cm) |zk~|mnvezm ś c mx|ikzezme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm ~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim }vcim ‡‡‡‡‡‡56:$5$ ^vz}nv}ze | Ď bädv}i}c‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡56:$:$ \zk|zcmv ĎŮ cim zkncikz ś c ~}j~ved Ů mikz bcdmzeim }vcim‡‡‡$50:$>$ W Ď n Ď bcdvm fm ~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim }vcim‡‡‡‡‡‡$$:::$6$ I}nz Ď zc fm |zk~|mnvezm ś c mx|ikzezm‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡:8  Vmbe >$ I}nz Ď zc (mxneqe Ů cc) nkd~vz}n Ů cc# bcdcmzm‡‡‡‡‡>< >$5 N}dk ś vcd Ů m `mdmzeim‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$><>$:$ I}nz Ď zc bcdcmzm qmzvcneim‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$>:>$>$ I}nz Ď zc bcdcmzm kzcwkdveim‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$$>=>$6$ I}nz Ď zc bcdcmzm ädnicdevm‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$>0>$=$ Zeb|m ~}jvmzedm ś c nebmzm‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$>8>$1$ I}nz Ď zc fm ejeveg ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡$65 Vmbe 6$ Dk Ů c}dc `mdmzeim e~}|ze mx|ikev Ď zcc w Ď n Ď bcdvmikzfm ~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim }vcim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6> 6$5$Dk Ů c}dc `mdmzeim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6>6$:$Ädvmz|zcdfmzme bcdcmz Ď $Bcde$ Näb|}ibcdcmz$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6>6$> Kzcwkdv) mveg) ~}jmveg) |edk} fm mx|ikevezm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$686$6$ Fcbmd~ckdezme mvegmikz fm mx|ikevezm ś c kzfcdmemx|ikev Ď zcikz$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=5 Vmbe =$ Fm~nhcfmzme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm ~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim}vcim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=> =$5 $ Fm~nhcfmzme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz mx|ikevejcim äd ~}jvmzed$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=>   =$5$5$ Fm~nhcfmzme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm n Ď zj}dc$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=>   =$5$5$5$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} `eimzcc fm nke~v Ď $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$==  6=$5$5$:$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} |} Ů }zc ädnicdevm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=1=$5$5$>$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} |} Ů }zc qmzvcneim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$=0=$5$5$6$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} bmvkfm nkbjcdevm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1<=$5$:$ Fm~nhcfmzme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm bcdmzm}zc$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1<=$5$:$5$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} |} Ů }zc qmzvcneim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$15=$5$:$:$ Fm~nhcfmzme n} |} Ů }zc ädnicdevm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1:=$5$:$>$Fm~nhcfmzme n} `eimzcc fm nke~v Ď $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1:=$5$:$6$Bmvkfm nkbjcdevm fm fm~nhcfmzm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1>=$:$ Fm~nhcfmzme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz mx|ikevejcim ie~}|zeaev Ď $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1>=$:$5$ Bmvkfm fm fm~nhcfmzm n} vzed ś mm mxvmzckezm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$1==$:$:$ Bmvkfm fm fm~nhcfmzm n} ~mbcvzed ś mm cdvmzckezm$$$$$$$$$$$$18=$:$>$ Bmvkfm fm fm~nhcfmzm n} i}nz Ď zc bcdcmzm ~}jvmzedm$$$$$$$13=$:$6$ Bmvkfm nkbjcdevm fm fm~nhcfmzm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$13 Vmbe 1$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm ~}j~ved Ů m bcdmzeim}vcim$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$05 1$5$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz mx|ikevejcim äd ~}jvmzed$$$$$$$$$$$$$$051$5$5$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm n Ď zj}dc$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$051$5$5$5$ \zm` Ď vczme ~vzevmikz n} `zk~cbm bcn Ď   ś c bmfcm$$$$$$$$$$$$$051$5$5$>$ Nie~cacnezme bmvkfmikz fm |zm` Ď vczm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$0=1$5$:$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm bcdmzm}zc$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$081$5$:$5$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm akzb Ď acikdced Ď $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$081$5$:$:$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz n} `zk~cbm bezm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$031$:$ \zm` Ď vczme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz mx|ikevejcim ie ~}|zeae ŮĎ $$$$$$$$$$$$$03 Vmbe 0$ Mx|ikevezme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz äd ~}jvmzed$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$8: 0$5$ Mx|ikevezme w Ď n Ď bcdvmikz fm n Ď zj}dc $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$8>0$5$5$ Nie~cacnezme bmvkfmikz fm mx|ikevezm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$8>0$5$:$ Mx|ikevezme ~vzevmikz n} `zk~cbm bcn Ď   ś c bmfcm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$860$5$>$ Mx|ikevezme ~vzevmikz n} `zk~cbm bezm $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$830$5$>$5$ Mx|ikevezme ~vzevmikz `zke~m äd amicc kzcwkdveim$$$$$$$$$$$$830$5$>$:$ Mx|ikevezme ~vzevmikz `zke~m äd amicc ädnicdevm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$360$5$>$>$ Mx|ikevezme ~vzevmikz `zke~m n} ~}z|ezme n Ď zj}dmi}c ś c e zkncikz ädnkdg}z Ď vkezm‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡3=0$5$6$ Mx|ikevezme n Ď zj}dcikz |zcd `ewcacnezm$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$38
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