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  Before 1969:  Life was classified into two kingdoms: Plant Kindgom – Animal Kingdom From 1969 – 1990:  Life was classified into 5 Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, by R! "#ittaker $%cience &'(, &5) *&+'+- using classification according to Linnaeus – based on anatomy, morphology, embryology, and cell structure *P% .iruses are not in A/0 of t#ese kingdomsremember t#at scientists do not classify t#em as 1ali2e1 BUT  – t#e traditional 5 Kingdom system says not#ing about #ow organisms wit#in Kingdoms or  between kingdoms may be related  to eac# ot#er 2ia e2olutionary relations#i3s among t#e kingdoms**"e won1t #a2e time to go #erebut w#at e2idence do scientists #a2e for #ow life began  on  3lanet 4art# 6lick l#ere for last year1s notes on 78#e 9rigin of Life7 if you are interested A e! "roposal: The Three #oma$ns of %$fe   &'arl (oese, 1990) %tarting in t#e early &+;)s, <r 6arl "oese, a 3rofessor in t#e <e3artment of Microbiology, =ni2ersity of >llinois, =rbana?6#am3aign, and ot#er scientists began to find e2idence for a  3re2iously unknown grou3 of 3rokaryotic organisms 8#ese organisms li2ed in e*treme  en2ironments ? dee3 sea #ydrot#ermal 2ents, 7 black smokers7, #ot s3rings, t#e <ead %ea, acid lakes, salt e2a3oration 3onds ? en2ironments t#at scientists #ad ne2er sus3ected would contain a 3rofusion of life@ecause t#ey a33eared 3rokaryotic, t#ey were considered bacteria and named 7 archaebacter$a 7 *1ancient1 bacteria !owe2er, became ob2ious from bioc#emical c#aracteristics and </A seuence analysis t#at t#ere were numerous  differences between t#ese arc#aebacteria and ot#er  bacteria @efore long, it was realiBed t#at t#ese arc#aebacteria were more closely related  to t#e eukaryotes *including oursel2es t#an to bacteria 8oday, t#ese bacteria #a2e been renamed Archaea From t#is work, <r "oese 3ro3osed t#at t#ere s#ould be a new caterogy of classification of life ?t#e #oma$n , a classification category abo+e  Kingdom The $stor$c "aper:  "oese, 6R, 9 Kandler, C ML "#eelis *&++) 78owards a natural system of organisms: Pro3osal for t#e domains Arc#aea, @acteria, and 4ucarya7 Proc /atl Acad %ci =%A D;:E5;'?E5;+  [  Image    ]   "-. 'arl (oese  won t#e at$onal /edal of -c$ence  in /o2ember ))) >s t#ere a /obel 3riBe in #is future <r Marrs says 04% */ot t#at t#e /obel 6ommittee asks for my o3inion o! !as the Three #oma$n 'lass$f$cat$on of %$fe #eterm$ned "oese *and many ot#er scientists in2ol2ed in t#is 3roGect used t#e nucleotide seuence of Ribosomal rR/A *t#e small subunit and ot#er R/A and 3rotein seuences as an H 2+olut$onary 'hronometer I – an e2olutionary t$me cloc3  "#at makes r4A  *or anot#er seuence a good Jc#ronometer& >t is un$+ersally d$str$buted  across grou3 c#osen – all organisms #a2e rR/A  >t is funct$onaly s$m$lar  between organisms – rR/As all 3artici3ate in 3rotein synt#esis( >ts seuence changes slo!ly  ? good for looking across long 3eriods of timeE 8#e rR/A seuences can be al$gned , or matc#ed u3, between  organisms9t#er seuences t#at can be used are t#e large rR/A subunit, or t#e gene for cytoc#rome c oidase, ferredoin The Three doma$ns 5 -ome 'haracter$st$cs: Bacter$a:  <omain @acteria is familiar to most 3eo3le w#en associated wit# #uman or animal  disease !owe2er, most bacterial s3ecies do not *and cannot cause disease Many s3ecies e2en  3lay beneficial roles by 3roducing antibiotics and food 8#e soil teems wit# free?li2ing bacteria t#at 3erform many essential functions in t#e bios3#ere, eg nitrogen fiation 9ur bodies are co+ered  wit# bacteria t#at make u3 our normal flora [ Quote    ] Fun Fact:   There are more bacteria in one person's mouth than there are people in the world.  Many are decom3osers, some are 3#otosynt#esiBers, and a few cause disease Most  bacteria cause disease by 3roducing eotoins t#at #arm #uman cells, w#ile ot#ers cause illness as a result of glyco3roteins found on t#e outside of t#eir ca3sules 8#ere are many s#a3es t#at  bacteria can come in, but t#ree of t#e main ones are  cocc$  *s3#erical, bac$ll$  *rods and sp$rochete  *s3iral bacteria [ Quote ] Atleast  ma7or "hyla:1. "roteobacter$a:  4nteric bacteria like  E. coli , Salmonella typhus ,  Legionella ,  Heliobacter pylorii *cause of many ulcers,  Neisseria  gonorrhea  *cause of gonorr#ea 8#ese bacteria are 2ery closely related to eu3aryot$c m$tochondr$a.8. 'yanobacter$a:  P#otosynt#etic Jblue?green bacteria  3roduce 9   gas 92er  billion years ago, t#ese bacteria made t#e 9   ric# atmos3#ere in w#ic# we li2e 8#ese bacteria are 2ery closely related to eu3aryot$c chloroplasts.  [  mage ] . 2ubacter$a:  6lostridium *tetanus, botulism, @acillus, myco3lasma *walking 3neumonia . 'hlamyd$as:  Parasites: Niardia, 6#lamydia *%8< . -p$rochaetes:  %3iral bacteria: cause sy3#ilis, Lyme disease8o read more about bacteria we don1t like, see t#e 7@ad @ug @ook 7 Archaea:  %$fes 2*trem$sts...;1. /ethanogens:  Hmet#ane?makersI=se only 69, ! and / to 3roduce energy to li2e, and as a result gi2e off met#ane gas [  mage    ]  Li2e in swam3s, mars#es, gut of cattle, termites, etc  !ethanococcus "annaschii , isolated from t#e dee3 sea Al2in 3robe, was t#e first Arc#aean w#ose genome was seuenced Met#anogens are decom3osersO and can be used in sewage treatment Met#anogens may someday be used to  3roduce met#ane as fuel 8. 2*treme aloph$les: Hsalt lo2ersIReuire an en2ironment as salty or e2en&) saltier t#an ocean water %ome 3refer u3 to () salt concentrations 8#ese bacteria li2e in t#e <ead %ea, t#e Nreat %alt Lake, salt e2a3oration 3onds  . 2*treme Thermoph$les:  H#eat Q cold lo2ersIPrefer tem3eratures abo2e ') � 6 *u3 to &&) � 6 for #y3ert#ermo3#iles or near or below freeBing *%ome t#ermo3#iles will die at roon tem3erature 8#ermo3#iles i2e in #ot sulfur s3rings, 0ellowstone Park , dee3 sea #ydrot#ermal 2ents Hblack smokersI, geot#ermal 3ower 3lants Also li2e in ocean waters around Antarctica, under t#e 3olar ice ca3s, etc Thermus a#uaticus  and  $yrococcus %uriosis  and two s3eciesMore 2*tremoph$les  #ere 2*tremoph$les  ? %cientific American &++; *P% "ritten by @arry Marrs ? but no relation 2u3arya 1. "rot$sta  – %ingle celled eukaryotes – 4uglena, Amoeba, Paramecium etcProtists can be found on land, in water, or li2ing inside ot#er organisms %ome 3rotists are  3#otosynt#etic, like 73#yto3lankton7, and 3roduce more oygen t#an all land 3lants 3ut toget#er 9t#er 3rotists are 3arasites or 3redators 8#e 3rotoBoan Trypanosoma brucei   causes African %lee3ing %ickness 8#is 3arasite it transmitted to man by t#e bite of t#e tsetse fly Anot#er  3rotoBoan,  Entameba histolytica  is a 3arasite of t#e stomac# w#ic# kills cells and drinks blood *but do not actually kill t#eir #ost 8#e 3rotoBoan  Plasmodium vivax  causes malaria, carried by female mosuitos Most 3rotoBoans mo2e by means of 3seudo3odia *7false feet7 or by cilia *little #airs [ Quote ] 8. Fung$  – Mus#rooms, bread molds, water molds, yeasts ,etc8#e Kingdom Fungi includes some of t#e most im3ortant organisms on 4art# @y breaking downdead organic material, t#ey cycle nutrients t#roug# ecosystems 9t#er fungi 3ro2ide drugs suc# as 3enicillin and ot#er antibiotics, foods like mus#rooms, truffles and morels, and t#e bubbles in  bread, c#am3agne, and beer Fungi also cause 3lant and animal diseases: in #umans, ringworm, at#lete1s foot, and se2eral more serious diseases are caused by fungi Plant diseases caused by fungi include rusts, smuts, and leaf, root, and stem rots, and may cause se2ere damage to cro3s !owe2er, a number of fungi, in 3articular t#e yeasts, are im3ortant 7model organisms7 for studying 3roblems in genetics and molecular biology   [ Quote    ] . "lantae   – Flowering 3lants, gymnos3erms *conifers, ferns, mosses, etcKingdom Plantae includes all land 3lants ? an amaBing range of di2erse forms wit# more t#an 5),))) s3ecies Plants first a33eared on 4art# in t#e 9rdo2ician 3eriod a33roimately 5&) million years ago 8#e most striking, and im3ortant, feature of 3lants is t#eir green color, t#e result of a 3igment called c#loro3#yll Plants use c#loro3#yll to ca3ture lig#t energy, w#ic# fuels t#e manufacture of foodsugar, starc#, and ot#er carbo#ydrates [ Quote    ]  . An$mal$a   – $8#ere is so muc# to say about t#is Kingdom ? 3lease 2isit t#e links if you want more information- [  mage    ] First a33eared on 4art# S'5) million years ago >ncludes s3onges,  Gellyfis#, corals, fis# *etc etc and a s3ecial mention to: Arthropods &$ncludes $nsects) :7@y nearly any measure, t#e most successful animals on t#e 3lanet are t#e arthropods  8#ey make u3 o2er t#ree?fourt#s of all currently known li2ing and fossil organisms, or o2er one m$ll$on spec$es  in all %ince many art#ro3od s3ecies remain undocumented or undisco2ered, t#e true number of li2ing art#ro3od s3ecies is 3robably in t#e tens of millions 9ne recent conser2ati2e estimate 3uts t#e number of art#ro3od s3ecies in tro3ical forests at ' to + million s3ecies *8#omas, &++) 7Art#ro3ods range in distribution from t#e dee3 sea to mountain 3eaks, in siBe from t#e king crabwit# its &?foot arms3an to microsco3ic insects and crustaceans <es3ite t#is unbelie2able di2ersity, t#e basic body 3lan of art#ro3ods is fairly constant Art#ro3ods #a2e a stiff cuticle made largely of ch$t$n  and 3roteins, forming an eoskeleton 8#ey #a2e segmented bodies to form integrated units *#eads, abdomens, and so on 8#e 3#ylum takes its name from its distincti2e Gointed a33endages, w#ic# may be modified in a number of ways to form antennae, mout#3arts, and re3roducti2e organs7 [ Quote    ] And anot#er s3ecial mention to  Tetrapods &amph$b$ans, rept$les, b$rds and mammals) :7 Tetrapods  were t#e first 2ertebrates to truly walk t#e land @efore tetra3ods eisted, 2ertebrates*like fis# were all confined to li2ing in auatic #abitats 8#e tetra3ods began mo2ing to land in t#e PaleoBoic around (') million years ago 8etra3ods are a name t#at we #a2e gi2en to anyt#ingwit# four feet *tetrafour, 3odfeet 8#erefore all land dwelling 2ertebrates can be considered tetra3ods 8etra3ods, w#ose closest li2ing relati2es are lungfis#, #a2e two main grou3s: amph$b$ans  and amn$otes  8#e amn$otes  in turn #a2e two main grou3s: t#e synaps$ds  *including mammals and t#e saurops$ds  *including re3tiles and t#eir fossil relati2es
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