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Being and Becoming: Learning, Skill, and Cognition as Exhibited on Painted White Ware Pottery at Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765), a Pueblo III Era Community Center in Southwestern Colorado

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Being and Becoming: Learning, Skill, and Cognition as Exhibited on Painted White Ware Pottery at Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765), a Pueblo III Era Community Center in Southwestern Colorado
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  Being and Becoming: Learning, Skill, and Cognition as Exhibited on Painted White Ware Pottery at Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765), a Pueblo III Era Community Center in Southwestern Colorado  by Jonathan Allen Schwartz A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Faculty of St. Cloud State University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science In Cultural Resource Management Archaeology December 2018 Thesis Committee: Mark Muñiz, Chairperson Rob Mann Mark Varien  2 Abstract The theory of conceptual metaphor through material culture posits that human physical experience with natural and cultural materials serves as the basis for the development of abstract knowledge (Tilley 1999). Apprenticeship theories in archaeology (e.g. Walleart ed. 2012) study how craft knowledge is transmitted generationally. Combining these approaches, this thesis seeks to understand if the “container   metaphor  ” ( sensu Ortman 2000a, 2012) was taught by adults and learned by children at the Sand Canyon Pueblo archaeological site in southwest Colorado, by comparing white ware pottery produced by children to those produced by adults. Patricia Crown’s (1999, 2001, 2002) 18 -point attribute analysis for determining the age and skill level of producers of painted designs of pre-Hispanic southwestern ceramics was adapted and tested on those vessels. The results of the study show that most ladles and several other vessels exhibit multiple less-skilled techniques that strongly suggest childhood production. It is determined that the attribute analysis can be usefully employed to assess a range of skills not necessarily related to youth production, as it is demonstrated more broadly that relative levels of exhibited skill in  painting are tied to specific vessel forms. It is shown that circles are near-universally communicated as a design motif on pottery containers by all members of the Sand Canyon community-of-practice, regardless of age or skill. It is suggested that CIRCLES ARE CONTAINERS   was a metaphor learned and experienced during childhood. Possible metaphorical links between ladles and childhood are considered. However, more research is needed to develop these ideas further.  3 Acknowledgements I would first like to thank my advisors for supporting my research. Their insight and knowledge were invaluable resources. Extending from that, I would like to acknowledge all my SCSU professors for providing the knowledge and tools to help me succeed in this endeavor. I would also like to extend gratitude to the staff at the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, where I worked as a laboratory intern in the summer of 2013. While there are many  people who deserve credit for their scholarship and work there, I would like to specifically thank Kari Schleher, Carole Graham, and Jamie Merewether, who ran the lab program that year. I would not have been able to start to develop the outline of this research project without the knowledge gained from them during that apprenticeship. The staff at the Canyons of the Ancients Visitor Center & Museum also deserve credit for their help, especially Tracy Murphy and Bridget Ambler. For about 3 weeks straight in the summer of 2013, the staff located and  pulled over 100 vessels for my studies. I am gracious to their hard work and attentiveness, and I could not have completed my study without their efforts. I would also like to send a shout-out to my friend and fellow archaeologist Michael Lorusso, who lent me the digital camera used to take the photographs of the vessels, and let me crash at his pad during my stay in Colorado while I accomplished the research for this thesis. It would have been much more difficult to accomplish the lab work without that generous support. Finally, I would like to thank my mom, who inculcated a love of learning in me at a very early age, and who always supports my endeavors.  4 Table of Contents Page Lists of Tables ............................................................................................................... 7 Lists of Figures ............................................................................................................. 8 Chapter 1.   Introduction to Sand Canyon Pueblo ................................................................ 10 Environmental Overview ........................................................................... 12 Demographic History ................................................................................ 16 Civic Architecture ..................................................................................... 22 Conceptual Metaphor and Material Culture ............................................... 26 The Container Metaphor ............................................................................ 28 Summary .................................................................................................... 31 2.   The Sample ....................................................................................................... 33  Northern San Juan Painted White Wares .................................................. 34 Pottery Production and Exchange ............................................................. 41 3.   Theory and Methods ......................................................................................... 43 Theoretical Overview ................................................................................ 43 Methodological Development ................................................................... 47 Analysis of Theory and Method ................................................................ 49 Attribute Analysis for Assessing Age/Skill of Pottery Painters ................ 50 Omitted Attribute Analyses ....................................................................... 60 Summary .................................................................................................... 63  5 Chapter Page 4.   Results ................................................................................................................ 65 The Gower Dissimilarity Coefficient  .............................................................. 65   Hierarchical Cluster Modeling .................................................................. 69 Analysis ..................................................................................................... 72 On Autocorrelation .................................................................................... 74 Grammatical Type and Implicit Skill Recognition ................................... 77 Group A Containing Vessels of Mixed but Distinct Skill and Age Cohorts ....... 78 Ladles as a Form Generally (but not Exclusively) Reserved for Children .......... 85 Comparing Form and Painted Skill ........................................................... 93 Group A 3 .................................................................................................... 95 Circles as a Predominate Motif at Every Skill Level ................................ 97   Summary ................................................................................................... 98 5.   Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 99 Circles as Pottery Motifs ........................................................................... 101 Circles as a Universal Symbol ................................................................... 102 Circles and Cultural Astronomy ................................................................ 104 Circles Are Containers .............................................................................. 106 Pottery Form as Material Metaphor .......................................................... 111 Other Avenues for Future Research .......................................................... 113 References Cited ........................................................................................................... 114
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