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Being and Being Mixed Race

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Being and Being Mixed Race
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   -',-- -~l::-'.; .. I'~;....- '.-- -< --L---... l_; BeingandBeingMixedRace -,  Howdoesitfeeltobeaproblem? In1903,in TheSoulsofBlackFolk W.E.B.DuBoisposedthisquestiontocapturethedilemmaandturmoilofbeingblackintheUnitedStates.Thequestiontakesonadditionalmeaningwhenwereflectonmixedraceandthesituationofthoseper-sonswhoareintheimpossiblepositionofbeinginbetweenthesocialcategoriesofwhite,black,AsianorPacificIslander,American,Indianor AlaskanNative,andHispanic. . Peopleareexpectedtobeonlyoneofthesecategories.Thosewhodonotfitintothisnation'sracialtypologyaresocialanomalies,andareun-welcomereminderstosocietythatraceisfluidandthattaboosagainstmiscegenationhavebeentransgressed.Itisdifficultenoughtomakeone'swaythroughlifeinthissociety'sracialcategories;notclearlytobelongtoanyofthemistocompoundanguishandalienationonanal-readychallengingsituation.Inadditiontothedifficultquestionsofiden-tity,mixedrace being raisesquestionsabouttherelationshipsof mixed,race personsandgroupstowhatisperceivedastheirparentgroups.InthispaperIexplorebothsetsofquestions.First,Iexplorethepo-liticalandethicalquestionsthatarisefromthecomplexrelationshipbe-tweenmixedraceindividualsandgroupsandtheirvariousparentgroups.Second,inlightofrecentpluralistmetaphysicsandtheiraccountsofso- 'Theseareallrac;ialcategoriesexcept Hispanic, whichisanethniccategorybutalsofunctionsbyhypodecsent.ApersoncanbeHispanicandofanyrace;however,liketheotherracialcategoriesoneiseitherHispanicornot.U.S.racialcategoriesare;offi;ciallysetbytheOfficeofManagementandBudget's1977StatisticalPolicyDirectiveNo.IS,whichisinc1udedintheappendixof StandardsfortheClassificationofFederalDataonRaceandEthnicity, FederalRegi:>ter 60:166,Monday,August28,1995,pp.44674-93).Seealso Re:>ul/:>fthe 1996 RaceandEthnicTargetedTe:>t (populationDivi.sionWorkingPaperNo.18;WashingtonD.C.:U.S.BureauoftheCensus,May1997).Directive15isalsoincludedinNaomiZack, AmericanMixedRace (Lanham;Md.:Rowman&Littlefield,1995),p.206,andMariaRoot, TheMultiracialExperience:Ra-  i l Border:> o theNewFrontier (ThousandOaks,Cal.:SagePublications,1996),p.411. Recently,somestateshavcpassedlegislationforthecreationofa multiracial category;seeJodiMailander, Floridacreatesmultiracialcategoryforstudents, Knight-RidderlJribuneNew:>Service August18,1995. ii Copyright2001by SocialTheoryandPractice. Vol.27,No.2(April2001) 285 --.r \.. J-'- ',.J  '---,,>-,. 286RonaldR.Sundstrom cialcategories,Iexaminethemetaphysicsofmixedrace.Iarguethat,givenametaphysicalframeworkthatissensitivetothevariancesofso-cialforces,mixedraceasahumankindhasadegreeofrealityintheU.S.Furthermore,mixedraceidentitycanbeadvancedinamannerthatisconsistentwiththeliberationoftraditionalcommunitiesofcolor. EscapefromBlackness Sincethewaningyearsofthe 1980s themixedracemovementhasgrowninmembershipandvoice.Themissionofthismovementhasbeentosupportinterracialcouplesandthemixedracechildrenofsuchunions,andtocombatracismandtaboosagainstinterracialrelationshipsandidentities.Theirmostvisibletask,however,hasbeentoleadanassaultagainstthisnation'ssystemofracialcategorization?Therehasbeenagreatdealofangstandsurpriseoverthisrecentre-surgenceofmixedraceidentity,andthemovementthathasarisenforitssocialandpoliticaladvocacy.Thecriticismsagainstthemovementhavebeenplentiful,andsometimesbrutal.Worse,thesupportithasreceivedfromorganizationsoutsidethemovementhasbeenattimespoliticallymanipulative.Themanipulationthismovementsuffersfromfalsealliesmakesthecriticismsagainstitmorepoignantandconvincing.Mostno-tableinthisrespectarethesupportingstatementsfromthepoliticalRight,whosesupportforthismovementarisesfrommotivescontrarytotheoverallprojectofthemovement.InthissectionIwillreviewthemostsignificantcriticismsagainstthe mixedrace movement. DelusionsofWhiteness Oneofthefirstcriticismsofferedagainstmixedraceisthatsuchidenti-tiesrepresentattempts,whetherconsciousorsubconscious,toescape urnismovement'seffortstochangewhatitsmembersfeltwasthefoundationoftheU.S.'ssystemofracialcategorization-namely,theracialcategoriesemployedintheU.S.'sdecennialcensus-climaxedon30June1993,whentheU.S.HouseofRepresen-tatives'SubcommitteeonCensus,Statistics,andPostalPersonnelheardtestimonyfromindividualsandgroups,suchastheAssociationofMultiEthnicAmericansandProjectRACE(ReclassifyAllChildrenEqually),whoarguedforthereformoftheracialcatego-riesemployedinthecensus.Theseindividualsandgroupsgenerallyarguedfordispens-ingwiththecollectionofracialdataalt<;>gether,oraddingamultiracialcategory.Thisefforthelpedchangecensusracialcategories(allowingformultipleentries),hasbroughttheissuetothenationalfore,andhassuccessfullylobbiedfortheadditionofmultiracial'categoriesonschooldistrictformsinsomestates.SeeSusanGraham, GrassrootsAdvo-cacy, pp.185-89,andCarlosFernandez, TestimonyoftheAssociationofMultiEthnicAmericansBeforetheSubcommitteeonCensus,Statistics,andPostalPersonneloftheU.S.HouseofRepresentatives, pp.191-210,bothinZack, AmericanMixedRace. --~, .--, I ,J '.~ ' --' - .. --=--->,' BeingandBeing¥ixedRace 287 blacknessordarkness-toescapebeingapersonofcolor.ThesecriticsarguethatmixedraceisimpossibleintheU.S.racialpolitic,becauseraceintheU.S.functionsbytheprincipleofhy?odescent.3TheU.S.ra-cialsystemdoesnotadmitofgraclations;thus thosewhoclaimsuchanidentityarebeinginauthentic,andareengagedinself-deception.4Beyondself-deception,mixedraceidentityisproblematic,criticsar-gue,becauseitsupportstheracistmechanics ofthe'Americanracialpolitic.HypodescentistheoperatingprinciplebehindraceintheU.S.,anditsmechanicsdisplaythepositivevaluationofwhitenessandthecor-respondingnegativevaluationofblacknessthatarethefoundationalas-sumptionsintheAmericanracialhierarchy.sOpponentsarguethatthis 3Seediscussionofhypodescentinchap.2ofNaomiZack, RaceandMixedRace (Philadelphia:TempleUniversityPress,1993).Seealsochap.4ofMichaelOmiandHowardWinant, RacialFormation in theUnitedStates 2nded.(NewYork:Routledge,1994);andLawrenceWright, OneDropOfBlood, TheNewYorker 25July1994,pp.46-55.Recently,theOfficeofManagementandBudget(OMB)approvedtheplanrec-ommendedbytheU.S.CensusBureau'sPopulationDivisionandDecennialStatisticalStudiesDivision'sRaceandEthnicTargetedTest(RAETDasreportedin ResultsQfThe 1996 RaceAndEthnicTargetedTest. RAETIrecommendedthatamultiracialcategorynotbeaddedtothecensus,butallowsrespondentstocheckmorethanoneracialheritagebox.Althoughimportant,thisdevelopmentdoesnotimmediatelychangehowraceworksintheU.S.FortheAmericanracialpolitictobetransformed,changemustoccuratalllevelsofgovernmentand,more,vital,inthenation'ssocialvalues,norms;andmores.4FordiscussionsofhowmixedraceidentityisimpossibleintheU.S.racialsystemseeCarlNoDegler, NeitherBlackNorWhite:SlaveryandRaceRelations in BrazilandtheUnitedStates (Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,1971),p.101;andNaomiZack, AnAutobiographicalViewofMixedRaceandDeracination, AmericanPhilo-sophicalAssociationNe wslellers 91:I(Spring1992):6-10,aswellaschaps.1and2of RaceandMixedRace. FordiscussionsofthiscriticismseeLynnNorment, AmIBlack,WhiteOrInBetween?:IsThereAPiotToCreateA'Colored',BufferRaceInAmerica? Ebony (August1995):108-12,andMichaelFrisby, BlackWhite,OrOther, Emerge (December/January,1996):48-54.Tosupportthiscriticism,Normentdrawsuponstate-mentsbynotedpsychiatristDr.AlvinPoussaint,andjournalistLisaJones(daughterofLeroiJones AmiriBarakaandhisformerwhitewife),andblackrockmusicianlennYKravitz,whoisquotedassaying: Youdon'thavetodenytheWhitesideofyouifyou'remixed....Accepttheblessingofhavingtheadvantageoftwo;butunderstandthatyouareBlack.Inthisworld,ifyouhaveonespotofBlackblood,youare Black. Sogetovcrit (p.112).InhisarticleFrisbycites,amongothers,ProfessorofAfricanAmericanStudiesWilliamStrickland,whoarguesthatitissilly topretendthatthissystemdoesn'tseeallofusasniggers. Additionally,seeLisaJones, IsBiracialEnough? inher BIIlIetProofDiva:TalesofRace SexandHair (NewYork:Doubleday,1994).SeealsoTrinaGrillo, Anti-EssentialismandIntersectionality:ToolstoDismantletheMaster'sHouse, BerkeleyWomen sLawJouTMI 10(1995):16-30,andjohnpowell,'TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma:RacialCategoriesReconsidered, UniversityofSanFranciscoLawReview 31(1997):789-806.JHypodescentworksdifferentlyintheU.S.fordifferentgroups.ThebestcontrastisbetweenAfricanAmericansandNativeAmericans.Traditionally,intheU.S.,ifapersonhasanyblackancestors,thentheyareblack.Incontrasttothewayraceworksforblacks, L--,Ic.,;,  ~ --, ,.0 1~I  ~--,I t:::--' -- ~'-.;:;:- - 288RonaldR.Sundstrommovementencourages,andpreservesthenegativevaluationofdarkness,andthepositivevaluationofwhiteness;hence,itencouragesandpre-serves racial hierarchy,andwhiteprivilege.Thecriticismisthatthosewhoclaimmixedraceidentityareparticipatinginaracisthierarchyofcolorandaretryingtoplacedistancebetweenthemselvesandnon-whitesatthebottom,'whiledecreasingthedistancebetweenthemselvesandwhitesatthetop.Thosewhoseek mixedrace identitydonotwantto , abolishthe' racial politicthatisresponsiblefortheoppressionofcom-munitiesofcolor.Rather,theywantthemselves,ortheirchildren,.tomoveupthehierarchyandhaveaccesstowhiteprivilege.Accordingtothisobjection,mixedr lceidentityfailstochallengera-cialhierarchy,andinthepresentracistclimateofournation,mixedraceidentitycontributestotheoppressionofcommunitiesofcolor.6This,criticssay,isthefundamentalharmthatiscommittedagainstcommuni-tiesofcolorbythemixedracemovement.Becauseatitstheoreticalcoreisanattempttoescapedarkness,itreinforcesthenegativevaluationofthelivesandcommunitiesofpeopleofcolor,andcontributestotheas-saultagainstthedignity,worth,andself-respectofpeopleandcommuni-tiesorcolor.Theindividualsinvolvedinthemovement,whoclaimmixedraceidentity,saytotheworld, IdonotwanttobeAsian,NativeAmerican,orAfrican;Iwouldratherbewhite. Thereisalsoworrythattheclaimsofmixedraceidentityrepresentinternalizedracismandself-hate.Inanenvironmentinwhichbeinga atleastintermsofthepoliciesadoptedbytheBureauofIndianAffairs,havingwhiteancestorsweakensaperson'sclaimtobeingNativeAmerican.Asortofoppositehypo-descentseemstobeoperatinginthecaseofNativeAmericans.Thedifferencesintheapplicationofhypodescentbet~eenblacksandNativeAmericansareoftenexplainedbycitingthehistoryofthe U,S. s internalslavetrade,andthisgovernment'sinterestinthegenocide,bothstatisticalandreal,oftheNorthAmericanindigenouspeoples.SeeM.AnnetteJaimes, SomeKindofIndian:OnRace,Eugenics,andMixed-Bloods, inZack, AmericanMixedRace, pp.133-53,foradiscussionofthegenocidalaimsofU.S.'sstan-dardsastowhocountsasbeingNativeAmerican.DespitetheofficialpoliciesregardingNativeAmericanidentity,sociallytohaveanyNativeAmericansancestors,especiallyifoneisjudgedas visually lookingnative,istosuffersocialstigmatization.Foreco-nomicandpoliticalreasons,the U.S. wantsasfewnativesaroundaspossible,butinthiscountry'ssocialworlds,hypodescentworksthesamefor'NativeAmericansasitdoesforAfricanAmericans.SeeMarlellaSquire-Hakey, YankeeImperialismandImperiaJistNostalgia, inZack, AmericanMi:udR(Jce, pp.221-28,forarelevantdiscussion.~eseargumentsarediscussedgenerallyinNorment, Am'IBlack.WhiteOrInBetween? Frisby; Black,White,OrOther, andKarenG.Bates,'Thetroublewiththerainbow:WillblacknesshaveaplaceinatrulymultiracialAmerica? VIneReader (Nov.lDec.1994):91-92.TheseargUmentsaredetailed,vaguely,inGrillo, Anti-EssentialismandInlerseclionality (pp.22-27),andmoreclearlyinpowell,'TheColor-blindMultiracialDilemma (pp.4-7).Fordiscussionofhow mixedrace categoriesfailtochallenge racial hierarchy,seeDavidTheoGoldberg, Madeinthe USA, inZack, AmericanMixedRace, pp.237-56.SeealsoWright, OneDropOfBlooo. .- I -'- :..-J ,..'  , iL;::,_; -........ ---.. ' ' -- BeingandBeingMixedRace personofcolorissodevalued,manynon-whiteindividualscometohatetheircolorand,hence,themselves.Accordingtothiscriticism,giventhepsychologicallydamagingnatureofAmerica'sracialpolitic,mixedraceidentityisjustanothersicksymptomoftheAmericanracialpolitic? WhoseLiberation? Otherargumentsthatthecriticsofthemixedracemovementuse'arethosethatdrawattentiontothepoliticallyproblematicimplicationsofmixedraceidentity.Thecriticsofthismovementmaintainthatthisiden-tityandthedemandforitspublicrecognitionwillundermineandreverseadvancesmadebythecivilrightsmovement;8Giventheir'worrythatmixedraceidentityrepresentstheracialequivalentofsocialclimbing(theattempttoclimbuparacisthierarchyandtherebyreassertit),criticsmaintainthatthemixedracemovement , supportspositionsandengagesinactivitiesthatruncountertothecivil rightseffortsofcommunitiesofcolor.First,giventhefactthatmostpeo-pleofcolorinthe U.S. areofmixedracialandethnicheritage,themixedracemovement,byencouragingsuchpeopletoidentifyasmixedraceratherthanmono-racialthreatensthemembershipbaseofcommunitiesofcolor.Thus,themovementthreatenstheclaim   oppressedcommu- nitiesofcolortoretributiveprogramsbasedonmembership,thepoliticalpowerthatresultsfromlargeconstituencies.andthepoliticalunityofthesecommunities.9 , Thesecondthingthe mixedrace movementallegedlydoestoun-derminecivilrightseffortsisprovideapersonalsolution-a mulattoescapehatch ~toracism.Thispersonalsolutiondiscouragescollectiveones.Itworksagainsttheunification,forpoliticalpurposes,ofpeopleofcolor.Insteadofidentifyingwith,say,AfricanAmericansorChicanas,individualscanidentifyasmixedraCeandseekupliftbyemphasizingtheiridentificationandfamilialrelationtowhites,orbymarrying up thehierarchyofcolor.IOThird,criticsargue,themovementunderminescivilrightseffortsand 7powell,'TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma. BForanexampleoftheirdemandsseeMarlaRoot, ABillofRightsforRaciallyMixedPeople, in theMultiracialExperience, pp.3.14.This billofrights isnotalistofproposedlegalrights;rather,itdelineateshowRoot,andmanyinthemovement.thinksmixedraceidentityoughttobepubliclyrecognized.9lbid.'I~ephrase mulattoescapehatch isCarlDegler's.Seehis NeitherBlackNor Whiteforadiscussion,ofthedeleteriouseffectsmixedracecategorieshavehadonat-temptstopoliticallyunifyblacksinBrazil.(p.219).SeealsoOrillo, Anti-Essentiali.smandIntersectionality (p.25),thediscussionsinFrisby, Black,White,OrOther (p.51),andNorment, AmIBlack,WhiteOrIn-Between? (pp.108-12). 289,---' J  ,  ...  290 RonaldR.Sundstrom pastachievementsbyplayingintothehandsofthepoliticalRight,whichseekstohalttheprogressofcivilrightsanddismantlepastachievements. PublicfiguresfromtheRight,suchasGeorgeWillandDineshD'Souza, . havebeenvocallysupportiveofthemovement.TheRight,however,asthecriticsofthemixedracemovementdulypointout,isusingtherheto-ricofthemovementtoclaimthatsincetheblackraceisasocialcon-struction,thenthereare really noblacks;andforthatmatter,thereare really noHispanicAmericans,NativeAmericans,orAsianAmericans.Infact,theRightargues,wearealljustAmericans,andhyphenatedidentitiesarenothingbutdivisiveidentitypolitics.Giventhis,theRightargues,weoughttonolongeruseracialcategories.Theabandonmentof.race,ofcourse,andconvenientlyfortheRight,meanstheabandonmentofprogramstoencourageandrecognizediversity(e.g.,multiculturaleducation),.andretributiveprogramsbasedonrace.IIConnectedtotheaboveobjections,anotherissuethatisfrequentlyvoicedisthefearthatthemixedracemovementwillleadtoacolorcastesystem,or pigmentocracy muchlikeBrazil'sorSouthAfrica's,andthatmixedracegroupswillserveasabufferraceorclass.Sucha.raceorclasswouldhavefewerprivilegesthanwhites,butmoreprivilegesthan - theblack,Asian,orNativeAmericancommunities.Thiswouldserveto underminethepoliticaleffortsofcommunitiesofcolorbybenefitif g , IIForex ,mplesofthesupportofth,eRightforthemultiracialcategory,seeGeorgeF.Will, MeldingInAmerica, WashingtonPost 5Oct.1997,p.7,andDineshD'Souza, 'Theone-drop-of-bloodrule, Forbes 158,no.13,2Dec.1996,p.48.Fordiscussionsofthiscriticism,seeFrisby, Black,White,OrOther (pp.49-50),andNorment, AmIBlackWhiteOrInBetween? (p.108).Seealsopowell, TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma (pp.I-4).Inparticular,D'Souz ,'scommentsarerevealingonhowtheRighthasappropriatedthelanguageofcolorblindnessandthe mixedrace movement: Itmakes,eminentsensetogetridofthes'ehistoricallyandscientificallyabsurdclassifica-tions,butpowerful politicalinterestshavemobilizedtopreservethestatus,quo.Theywanttoprotecttheracialprivilegesthatthecurrentsystemprovides,whileother,sseektoamendtheirracialtitlesinordertoexpandtheirrace-basedentitlements.Testifyingatthehearings[seen.3above],civilrightsactivistscondemnedproposalstoeliminateracialclassification.Theyseemed,unconsciousoftheironythattheywereperpetuatingtheraciallexiconoftheiroppressorsandrejectingthecolorblindprincipleforwhichgenera-tionsofblackleadersfromFrederickDouglasstoMartinLutherKingJr.,hadlabored.Themotivesoftheseactivistswereentirelypragmatic.Theypointedout,correctly,thatifthegovernmentstopscountingitscitizensbyrace,thiscouldmeantheendofcollegeadmissions,facultyrecruitment,scholarships,hiring,promotion,governmentcontracts,race-basedset-asides,andvotingdistrictsbasedonrace. Thesedisplaysshowra,cialpreferencesforwhattheyreallyare:Purepoliticalpork-orrent-seeking,tousethetermeconomistsuse.ConsistentwithMartinLutherKing'svision,thegovernmentshouldstopcolor-codingitscitizens.AnewgenerationofAmericans,likeSusanGraham's[DirectorofProjectRace,seen.2]childrenandmine,shouldbeabletothinkofthemselvesasAmericans,andnothavetogothroughlifecheckingracialboxesthatforcethemintoartificialcategories (p.48). -- ,~I 'J ,,~ ~ I: -J...- =---- BeingandBdngMixedRace  9 s v r l subgroupsofindividualsofcolor.ItwouldalsoaJlowwhitesto havethepretenseofafacelesssociety,whileonlyadmittingintomain-streamsocietylight-skinnedindividualstheyfindappeaJing,acceptable,andpoliticallyimpotent.Althoughallpeopleofcolorlose,non-whiteparentgroupswouldsufferdoubly:theywouldfaceanincreaseinracismfromwhites,andtheracismofthebufferclass.12Anotheraspectofthemixedn, -cemovementthatcriticsexpressagreatdealofanxietyaboutistheroleofwhitemothersinthemovement.SomecriticshavearguedthatthepressuretocreateamultiraciaJcat,e-gorycomesfromwhitemotherswhohavenon-whitechildren.Thesemothers,fromtheirownracism,orfromanurgetoprotecttheirchildfromsociety'sracism,seektoresisttheirchi]dfrombeingidentifiedasblack,Asian,orNativeAmerican.Accordingtocritics,thesewhitemothershaveselfishlylobbiedforthemultiracialcategorywithouttak-ingintoconsiderationtheliberationofcommunitiesofcolormerelyforthecalmingoftheirracialfears,aDdthestrokingoftheidentitiesoftheirmultiracialchildren~ 13 ReassertingRace Athirdsetofobjectionsraisedagainstthemixedracemovementarguesthat,despitethemovement'sclaimstounderminerace,mono-racialidentities,ideasofraciaJpurity,andfalsebiologicalbeliefsaboutrace,itresultsinthereinforcementofallofthese.Critics,suchasDavidTheoGoldberg,I4Michaelami,t5andjohnpowelI,16arguethatthemixedracemovement'sattempttosubverthypodescentandtheAmerican,practiceofassigningmono-racialidentitiesthroughitsdiscourseofmixture,hy-bridity,impurity,creolization,andsoon.hastheeffectofreasserting race. AsGoldbergargues: Thegeneralcategoryof mixedrace, andthespecificsubcategoriesofracialidentityitlicenses,wereadmittedintotheracialconfigurationasawayofcognizingthiscomplex-ity,butcognizingiton(moreprecisely, in racialterms.Thus, mixedrace may seem to,12FordiscussionsofthiscriticismseeBates,'Thetroublewiththerainbow (p.92),Norment, AmIBlack,WhiteOrInBetween (p.110),Frisby, Black,White,OrOther (p.49),and BlackLawmakersOpposeMichiganBillThatMakesNewMultiracialClass, Jet 88,no.6(1995),p.46.SeealsoGrillo, Anti-EssentialismandIntersectional-ity <J:P.24-27),andpowell,'TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma (pp.5-1I).1SeeWright, OneDropofBlood (p.47).FordiscussionsofthiscriticismseeGrillo, Anti-EssentialismIntersectionality (p.26),andpowell,'TheColorblindMulti-racialDilemma (pp.5-6).14Goldberg, MadeintheUSA, 15SeeMichaelOmi, ~acialIdentityandtheState:TheDilemmasofClassification, Law & Inequality:  ournal ofTheory & Practice 7(1997):7-23. J6Seepowell, TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma. ---1   \ ------- ---1 ~ ;-,...) ~~  '-- '.,J~  .~,- ~~  -- . -:-292Ronald R.Sundstrom captureinthemostadequatefashionprevailingdemographicheterogeneity,butitdoessoonlybysilentlyfixinginplacetheracializingproject.Itnaturalizesracialassumption,markingmixed-nessasanaberrantcondition,astransgressive,andattheextremepuritypolluting.Itmayseemtoofferexcitingproafpositivethatadeepsacialtaboohasbeentransgressed,thatracialdisciplineandorderhavebeenvialated,thatliberty slurehasonceagainunderminedtheconditionofhomogeneitybydelimitingtheconstraintsofthehegemonic.Yetitatonce,andnecessarily,reimposesthehegemonyofracialduality-{)fblacknessandwhiteness-asthestandard,themeasure,ofmixed-ness. Accordingtothesecritics,toassertracialmixtureistoimplytheex-istenceandpurityofunmixedracialpoles,andofpureblack,white,Asian,NativeAmerican,andHispanicidentities.ISLikewise,aspowellstresses,mixedracediscourse-talkofmixed,blood,ornotionsthatapersoncansomehowbemadeupofracialparts-reassertsdiscreditedbiologicalnotionsofrace.19Acorollaryobjectiontomanyoftheaboveargumentsisthatthemixedracecategoryisredundant.CriticsarguethatsincewhiteintheU.S,isdefinednegatively,inthatwhitenessisdefinedbytheabsenceofnon-white ancestors,thenon-whiteracialcategoriesarealreadymixedracecategories;thus,criticsmaintain,anAmericanmixedracecategorywouldberedundant.2° BadFaith ThelastobjectionIwilldiscussisoneofferedupbyNaomiZack s philosophyofanti-race. ,21Zackagreeswiththeabovecriticismthatthecreationofmixedraceidentityinvolvesthereificationofrace;however,herargumentisexistentialistandcontendsthattheformationofmixedraceidentityistheformationofanidentityinbadfaith?2Zack,inkeep-  Goldberg, MadeintheUSA, p.243.TheitalicsareGoldberg s.18Seepowell, TheColorblindMultiracialDilemma. 19Ibid.,p.6.SeealsodiscussionofthisargumentinWright, OneDropOfBlood. 2~isobjectionwasgivenbyLewisGordonattheCommitteeonBlacksinPhiloso-phy ssymposiumon race heldduringthe1996EasternDivisionAPAmeeting.Forsimilardiscussions,seeGoldberg, MadeintheUSA, p.252,p:18n.17,andp.6n.18.SeealsoGrillo, Anti-EssentialismandIntersectionality, p.24.21Thephrase philosophyofanti-race isthetitleofthethirdsectionofZack s Race andMixedRace.  . . , 22Zack sphilosophyofanti-raceisdetailedinchaps.14and15ofher RaceandMixedRace. Seealso theprefaceofher AmericanMixedRace her AnAutobiographicalViewofMixedRaceandDeracination, andher OnBeingandNot-BeingBlackand Jewish, inRoot, TheMultiracialExperience pp.140-51.AlthoughZackargues that mixedraceisproblematic,sherecognizesthatitmaybeanecessarystepinthedisman-tlingoftheAmericanracialpolitic.For example,shemakesthiscommentinthe,prefaceof AmericanMixedRace:  Iampessimisticaboutthelongtermsuccessofanyintellec-tual(orpractical)projectofmicrodiversity[intragraupdiversity]because Ithink thatcurrentideasofdiver~ity(.orracialdifference)arebasedan.outdatedpseudoscientific -=-  . - i  - ~ .,~~ 1 --,-;  ,-- ,..,.-- .. -........J BeingandBeingMixeclRace 293 ~ i~ ingwithexistentialism,arguesthatindividualsoughttopursueanauthenticlife,andtohavesuchalifepersonsmusthaveauthenticidenti-ties.Identitiesorconsciousnessthatarefalse,orinauthentic,arein-volvedinbadfaith.Zackarguesthatindividualsshouldnothaverl;\cialidentitiesof a ?;sort becauseracialcategoriesareracistandhavenoscientificbasis.3Shearguesthattoformaracialidentityofanysortistoengageina fantasy ofidentity,and,thus,badfaith?4Theindividualwithmixedracialbackgroundscannothavemixedraceormono-racialidentity,be-causebothinvolvebadfaith.Anyracialidentitypickedbysuchaperson,accordingtoherarguments,neverleadstofullacceptanceandalwaysinvolveslyinganddenial,ForZack,theonlymoralchoiceforthemixedraceindividualisto holdback andnotchoose,tobe anti-race, tobe, raceless ;because,thatisthe only choiceinwhichweexercisegood faith,andisthepositioninwhichwearebeingmostauthentic.23 TheOntologyof MixedRace Toofferrejoinderstoalloftheobjectionsoffered,Iwanttodefendandexplainthe existence of themixedracecategory.TodosoIwillgiveanaccountofthecategorybyusingametaphysicalpluralistaccountofso-cialcategories.Specifically,Iwilldrawuponametaphysicalpluralistontologyofracetogiveanaccountoftheontologyofm\xedracethatdemonstratesthatclaimsofmixedraceidentitymak~senseandarenot r beliefs abaut race;andtheBalkanization.ofabadidea,nomatterhowwell-enshrined thatidea ishistarically,can.onlyleadtomaretrouble.But,alsainthelongrun,thetrouble willhavebeenanecessarycatharsistowardtheultimateracialharmonythatcanresult.onlyfromacompletedisso.lutianoftheAmericanconceptofraceasasacialcanstructionrootedincolanialization,exploitationandslavery.Thereality.ofmixedraceneedstobewrittenandtalkedoutbeforetheiIlusian.ofraceitselfcanbedispelled (p.x).2JSeeZack, RaceandMixedRace; pp.3-4.24Seelack, OnBeingandNot-BeingBlackandJewish, farheruseof fantasy inthiscantext.ofbadfaith(p.149).Seechap,14ofher RaceandMixedRace fardiscussianofmixedraceidentityandbadfaith.,2SSeeZack, AnAutobiagraphicalView.ofMixedRaceandDeracination, OnBe-ingandNot-BeingBlackandJewish (pp.148-51),andchap.14of RaceandMixed Race. Zack,in thatchapter states AnAmericanwhoidentifiesherselfasmixedblack andwhiteraceis anewpersanracially,becauseoldracialcategoriesdanotallowhertoidentifyherselfthisway.Itissuchaperson sverynewnessraciallythatgiveshertheoption.ofracelessness.Toberacelessincontemporaryracial andracistsocietyis,inef-fect,ta bean/i-race. If authenticity isadefinitian.oftheselfintheface.ofoppression, thentheauthenticityofaperson.ofmixedracemay rest anherresistancetobiracialracial categaries-theracialauthenticity.ofmixedracecouldthereforebetheracialpositionofanti.race (p.164).TheitalicsareZack s.
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