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Being and Time : Part 1 Presentation

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Being and Time : Part 1 Presentation
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  Christopher HerenST 8435 – Philosophical Topics: PhenomenologyPresentation for 3/1/11“n Him !e li"e an# mo"e an# ha"e o$r %eing& – 'cts 1(:)8a *S+ Biography and Introduction ,artin Hei#egger -188.1.(0 !as a 2erman %orn philosopher !ho is %est no!n for hismon$mental !or  Being and Time - Sein und Zeit   Hei#egger %egan as a 6oman Catholic st$#ent intereste# in scholastic philosophy from the great me#ie"al so$rces St Thomas an# 7$ns Scot$s hile in school ho!e"er he %ecame con"ince# of ,artin 9$thers criticism of thescholastics an# he %egan %eing infl$ence# %y ;ant Hegel an# <iet=sche >ne of the foremost concepts that he pics $p is that of historical #e"elopment an# an appreciation for e?perience in  philosophical en#ea"ors Hei#egger mo"e# from accepting this criticism of the scholastics an#  %egan learning philosophy an# phenomenology from *#m$n# H$sserl hile there is some #e%ate regar#ing  Being and Time,  it is meant to %e a phenomenological !or an# H$sserl treate#it as s$ch Hei#egger e"ent$ally recei"e# H$sserls assistance in attaining a chair in @rei%$rg !hich he !as A$alifie# for after ha"ing p$%lishe#  Being and Time  in 1.)( 1 Thro$gho$t his career an# especially in  Being and Time  Hei#egger is one !ho so$ght to A$estion the "ery nat$re of “%eing& an# ontology as it !as $n#erstoo# %y the scholastics an# carrie# thro$gh %y 7es Cartes an# ;ant hile he often maes positi"e references to H$sserl )   1 The biographical information regarding Heidegger is taken from Encyclopedia of Philosophy  , 2 nd  Ed., ed. Donald M. Borshert, (Detroit: Thompson ale, 2!!"#. $ee %ol. &: s.'. Heidegger, Martin,) pp. 2**+2". 2 He e'en dedicates Being and Time  to H-sserl.1  he #eparts in some ra#ical !ays from his teacher He traces the roots of his tho$ght processes  %ac to the ancient 2ree philosophers an# arg$es for a ra#ically #ifferent approach to  phenomenological ontology that %len#s practical e?perience an# relationships !ith s$%tle an# n$ance# !or#play in %oth the 2ree an# 2erman Bnfort$nately for $s  Being and Time is an $nfinishe# !or %eing p$%lishe# in some!hat of a h$rry an# not in the more episo#ic !ay Hei#egger initially !as hoping for Ho!e"er !hat !e #o ha"e allo!s for a point of entry into his !or The scope of this presentation is to co"er !hat is #escri%e# in the first #i"ision of the first part !hich is the tho$ght processes an# e"ol$tion of 7asein as it pertains to an ontology of “care& *"en a s$mmary #isc$ssion of this first part ho!e"er !o$l# %e a mon$mental tas in or#er to gi"e $stice to Hei#eggers arg$ment  ha"e attempte# to s$mmari=e an# #isc$ss !hat tho$ght to %e the most important aspects of his tho$ght an# any lac in the presentation is the res$lt of my ina%ility to a#eA$ately capt$re his %rilliance The Setup: Dasein and the Ancient Greeks Hei#egger %egins his !or !ith a A$ote from Platos Sophist   !hich #escri%es ho! conf$se# the speaer is as to !hat is meant precisely %y “%eing& 3  The starting point for Hei#egger is not !hatmetho# to $se in or#er to #etermine !hat can %e no!n an# !ith !hat certainty nor is it the "erynat$re of tho$ght an# !hat role “intention& might play in piecing o$t ho! tho$ght organi=es !hat the senses percei"e 6ather Hei#egger t$rns 7es Cartes cogito ergo sum  on its hea# Bnlie H$sserl it is not the cogito  an# its s$%seA$ent cogitationes that recei"es attention an# nee#s to %e e?amine# %$t the  sum   Martin Heidegger, Being and Time , trans. /oan $tamba-gh, (0lban: $tate ni'ersit of 3e4 5ork 6ress, 2!1!#, 77i7: 8or manifestl o- ha'e long been a4are of 4hat o- mean 4hen o- -se the e7pression 9 being  ( ’seiend’  #. ;e, ho4e'er, 4ho -sed to think 4e -nderstood it, ha'e no4 become perple7ed.) 2  Hei#egger arg$es that for too long philosophy has %een hel# s!ay %y an ontology of s$%ecto%ect from the me#ie"al scholastics that sA$elches !hat the ancient 2rees -primarily Plato an# 'ristotle ha# in min# !hen #ealing !ith “%eing& This interpreti"e o"erlay !as epitomi=e# in 7es Cartes !ith the cogito  *"er since the 2rees philosophy has ignore# an# ass$me# that !hat a “%eing& is !as a selfe"i#ent fact an# it is this ignorance that Hei#egger $mps on an# critiA$es 4  The contin$ation of the ancient 2ree tho$ght for Hei#egger is fo$n# %y asing the A$estion of !hat “%eing& is n or#er to A$estion !hat a %eing is he first starts !ith $n#erstan#ing that !hat he is #oing is asing a A$estion an# that in this A$estion there lies the i#ea of a %eing seeing to no! its o!n %eing an# this %eing is !hat he calls “7asein& 5  hat relates his #isc$ssion of 7asein to phenomenology is ho! he interprets the "ery term from the 2ree  0  an# then maes it into a metho# of in"estigation of “the things themsel"es& @rom the 2ree Hei#egger arg$es that a phenomenon is “the self sho!ing in itself& (  an# that lo,go<  in#icates relationality 8   & =bid, 1. >n the basis of the reek point of depart-re for the interpretation of being a dogma has taken shape 4hich not onl declares the meaning of being is s-per?-o-s, b-t e'en sanctions its neglect.) @ =bid, A. This being $eiendeC, 4hich 4e o-rsel'es in each case are and 4hich incl-des in-ir among the possibilities of its being, 4e form-late terminologicall as Dasein . The e7plicit and l-cid form-lation of the -estion of meaning of being re-ires a prior s-itable e7plication of a being (Dasein# 4ith regard to its being.)" =bid, 2"+2.A =bid, 2.* He comes to this concl-sion beca-se of his delimiting) the 4ord and appling his -se of the inniti'e, to speak) (legein  as a stan#in #efinition   Phenomenology is therefore the enco$ntering of %eings sho!ing themsel"es in themsel"es an# comm$nicating this to other %eings t !o$l# %e a mistae to treat %eings as if they !ere s$%ects or o%ects as classical an# mo#ern  philosophy has #one 6ather the remain#er of part one is the %eginning analysis of 7asein an# the stripping a!ay of all preconcei"e# metaphysical notions -partic$larly concepts of spatiality an# p$tting them in a ne! conte?t that $n#erstan#s ontology an# phenomenology together “Philosophy is $ni"ersal phenomenological ontology taing its #epart$re from the hermene$tics of 7asein !hich as an analysis of existence  D  Existenz  E has fastene# the en# of the g$i#eline of all philosophical inA$iry at the point from !hich it arises  an# to !hich it returns & .  This  phenomenological metho#ology in"ol"ing the $sage of 7asein as a hori=on of $n#erstan#ing  %eing foc$ses $pon the i#ea that its ontic #istinction lies in it %eing ontological n other !or#s 7asein $n#erstan#s itself as ha"ing ontic an# ontological priority o"er other %eings that 7asein $n#erstan#s an# enco$nters The "ery %eing of 7asein is that it $n#erstan#s itself in itself The final portion of Hei#eggers intro#$ction is to %ring for!ar# !hat he inten#s to #o in relationto classical ontology He !ishes to #ismantle it %y remo"ing the Cartesian an# ;antian elements stripping ontology #o!n to the point -he thins of the ancient 2rees The #estr$ctionof !hat constit$te# ontology from the ,i##le 'ges on!ar# is necessary for a gen$ine seeing o$t of ontology hat Hei#egger $ltimately sees in his opinion is the tr$e an# p$re search for ontology 1F  =bid, ". 1! =bid, 2@. ;ithin the frame4ork of the follo4ing f-ndamental elaboration o f the -estion of being a detailed temporal interpretation of the highest and purest stage , that is, in  Aristotle F cannot be oGered. =nstead, 4e oGer an interpretation of 0ristotles treatise on time, 4hich can be taken as a 4a of discerning  the basis and limits of the ancient science of being) emphasis mineC. &  The Preparatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein hile not trying to %e an e?istentialist Hei#egger nonetheless starts !ith the i#ea that 7asein is al!ays “!e& or “$s& an# that from this aspect of 7asein t!o characteristics follo!G its essence lies in its e?istence an# the %eing DSeinE of this %eing DSeien#enE !hich it concerns itself !ith is “my o!n& 11  7asein m$st also %e $n#erstoo# in its “e"ery#ayness& n e"ery#ayness !hat is ontically “closest& is often the most often ontologically o"erlooe# an# forgotten 1) The hingepoint !ith regar# to the initial #estr$ction of tra#itional ontology is that of 7es Cartesspatiality n thining a%o$t the  sum  rather than the cogitare,  Hei#egger $n#erc$ts the $n#erstan#ing of the h$man %eing as t!o things res cogitans  an# res extensa  7asein is not some %eing !ith an e?ten#e# %o#y place# !ithin the container of the !orl# an# !hich grasps the!orl# %y thining a%o$t it %ase# on its enco$nters nstea# 7asein is a “%einginthe!orl#& !hich is more of an e?istential statement place# in opposition to “ha"ing& the !orl# 13 7asein is not a s$%ect as it !o$l# ha"e %een in 7es Cartes !here it !as treate# as res cogitans   %eing place# !ithin a %o#y res extensa  an# p$t !ithin three #imensions of Cartesian space !ithin!hich it lay at "ario$s #istances !ith o%ects n 7es Cartes the three#imensions !ere 11 =t is for this reason that = cannot -nderstand the concept of Dasein as anthing other thane7istential, especiall since Heidegger 4ill emphasie Dasein in its e'erdaness.) 12 =f = -nderstand this correctl, he is indicating that 4hat 4e are most familiar 4ith 4e do not percei'e and th-s it is o'erlooked 4ith regard to the e7istential analtic. 1 =bid, @@. 0s an e7istential, 9being together 4ith the 4orld ne'er means anthing like thebeing+ob<ecti'el+present+together of things that occ-r. There is no s-ch thing as the 9being ne7t to each other of a being called 9Dasein 4ith another being called 94orld.) @
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