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Bench Marking

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Benchmarking INTRODUCTION The term benchmark was originally used in surveying to denote a mark on a survey peg or stone acts as a permanent reference point against which the level of various topographic features can be measured. It has also acquired a more general meaning as a reference or criterion against which something can be measured. The first use of the term in an educational sense is accorded to R.K. Melton (1997) standards represent benchmarks with which students compare their ability a
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  Benchmarking INTRODUCTION The term benchmark was srcinally used in surveying to denote a mark on a survey pegor stone acts as a permanent reference point against which the level of varioustopographic features can be measured. It has also acquired a more general meaning as areference or criterion against which something can be measured. The first use of theterm in an educational sense is accorded to R.K. Melton (1997) standards representbenchmarks with which students compare their ability and performance.Xerox first applied the term benchmarking to a process of organizational self-evaluationand self-improvement. Faced with a rapidly declining market share in the early 1980,the company pioneered the method of comparing and evaluating its business process,products, and performance against competitors. The organizational learning acquiredthrough this process led to dramatic reduction in costs and an improved share of themarket. The methodology was transferred and adapted to all levels of education inNorth America in the early 1990, followed rapidly by Australia and more recently the UKand, to a lesser extent, continental Europe. (Schofield 1998)Although universities are essentially not for profit, public service organizations theymust generate sufficient income to support and reinvest in the educational enterprise.Universities are in no doubt that; they operate in a series of competition local, regional,national, and global.In the commercial world, benchmarking is used to identify new, innovative, and moreeffective ways of doing things to gain and maintain competitive advantage. In the worldof higher education, gaining competitive advantages are an important motivating factor,but institutional reputation, based on such matters as standing, the public perception of the currency of awards and the employability of graduates are also important. In boththe national and international market there, are clearly competitive advantages inestablishing and maintaining a reputation for high quality education and research.Benchmarking is being used as a way of reinforcing peer groups and helping to maintainand enhance institutional reputation. Objectives of the Study: To know about the term BenchmarkingTo investigate the types and importance of Benchmarking in Higher EducationTo know the scope of Benchmarking Objectives of Benchmarking: To identify the departmental approaches of management of quality and standards met or exceeded the expectations.To know the ways in which a departments approaches of managing of quality and standardsmay changed.To identify the new ways and measures in order to enhance or better the situationTo give better plan of action and suggest ways and means for the modifications andimprovement of the prevailing situation.  There are many definitions of benchmarking. Robert camp who benchmarking at Xerox,defined it as finding and implementing best practice with the reason for doing it, (toimprove work processes that will satisfy customers, Loveday 1993:43) price (1994:5)also defined this process the aim of emulating or improving best available practice.Both definitions indicate that benchmarking is fundamentally an approach to self-evaluation through comparative analysis for the purpose of self-improvement. The twofundamental purposes of any method of self-evaluation in higher education are:-to facilitate improvement development change and-to satisfied expectation and requirements for professional accountability (Kells 1992and 1995; Jackson 1997)Jackson 1998a proposed a broader definition for benchmarking in UK, whichaccommodates nations of accountability as well as development, e.g. a process tofacilitate the systematic comparison and evaluation of practice, process andperformance to aid improvement and regulation. Why Are We Benchmarking? Although universities are essentially not for profit, public service organizations theymust generate sufficient income to support and reinvest in the educational enterprise.Universities are in no doubt that; they operate in a series of competition markets-localregional, national, and global. In the commercial world, benchmarking is used to identifynew, innovative, and more effective ways of doing things to gain and maintaincompetitive advantage. In the world of higher education, gaining competitiveadvantages is an important motivating factor but institutional reputation, based on suchmatters as research standing, the public perception of the currency of awards and theemployability of graduates is important. In both the national and international marketplace there, are clearly competitive advantages in establishing and maintaining areputation for high quality education and research. Benchmarking is being used as a wayof reinforcing peer groups and helping to maintain and enhance institutional reputation.Public confidence in the academic standards of an institution is dependent on robustmechanisms for self-regulation and external quality assurance. As higher education,markets become more sophisticated there is a need to provide information that willenable degree outcomes to be compared and differentiated. The rapid expansion of higher education in the UK and increased diversity in all aspects of delivery, theassessment of learning and outcomes have increased public demand for explicitinformation that will enable degree outcomes to be differentiated. Benchmarking isbeing developed to improve the capacity of higher education to demonstrate moretransparent levels of comparability and difference between awards in differentinstitution and subjects.The educational enterprise is support by a range of administrative and managerialfunctions, technical and other support services e.g. registry, libraries, IT infrastructure  financial services personnel, estates, catering, student services, etc. creative and costeffective management of these functions is vital if universities are to continue to deliverexcellence in the face of declining per capita state funding and rapid change.Benchmarking provides a vehicle for sharing practice within functional communicates,identifying smarter ways of doing things and new solutions to common problems andidentifying ways of reducing costs while optimizing the quality of service offered tostudents and other clients. Types of Benchmarking: Benchmarking activities can be classified according to thenature of the referencing process that under pins the activity (Jackson 1998b) and /orwhether the process is: Implicit or explicit benchmarking: Schofield (1998) classified benchmarking activitiesaccording to whether the activity is implicit (information gathered by a national agency),or explicit (a process that facilitate comparison and identify directions for change(improvement). Independent or collaborative benchmarking: A single institution or administrative unitwithin an institution may wish to compare its own practice and performance, known asIndependent benchmarking. Collaborative benchmarking involves the activeparticipation of two or more organizations or units in a formal structured process. Internally or Externally Focused Benchmarking: Internal benchmarking is a processused in decentralized organization where performance in similar processes is comparedbetween operating units. In universities, this can mean comparison between differentacademic departments or different administrative units. External benchmarking is aprocess used in different organizations where performances in different operating unitsare compared. This can mean comparison between different universities and theirdepartments. Three Types of External Benchmarkinga. Competitive benchmarking: Focuses on measuring performance against competitororganization. In universities, this might take the form of comparing the staff and studentrecruitment strategies with the institutions main competitors. b. Functional benchmarking: This is a process used to compare own practice with otherorganizations fulfilling similar functions. This could mean, for example, a universitycomparing its admissions or procurement procedures with others universities.  c. Generic benchmarking (also known as best in class): Compares the process of anorganization to organizations that operate in a different context but are recognized astruly innovative and leaders in their field. The criterion for benchmarking is whoperforms this activity best. For example, a university might compare its facilitiesmanagement processes with those of an Airline, manufacturing company, or Hospital.The difference between functional and generic benchmarking is that the latter seeks toidentify and understand why the best of the best is the best. Input  Process  Output Focus: Benchmarking can be focused on the process (inputs)and from the process (outputs). The terms output is used for comparison of specificactivities between organization, and process benchmarking a comparison of thecapabilities and system used by the organizations to achieve their results. Scope of Benchmarking:A.Vertical and b. Horizontal process: Benchmarking can be focused on a single businessor academic process (process is used to embrace the totality of practice, behavior, valueand systems, procedure, performance/outcomes and products). Alstete (1995) classifiedbenchmarking processes into vertical and horizontal components.Vertical benchmarking aims to quantify or qualitatively understands work process in adiscrete functional area. For example in a university this might be an evaluation of theteaching, learning and assessment practices within a department, or the way a registrardischarges its administrative functions. In contrast, horizontal benchmarking examineswork process that crosscut the functional areas and organizational units. In a universitythis might take the form of a study that examines the way different departments engagein the admissions process or the induction of students.

cb module 1

Sep 18, 2017
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