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Beneficiarius Eius- Dise. Electonic Antiquity.

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relationship between beneficiarii and their superior
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  BENEFICIARIUS EIUS(1) Robert L. Dise, Jr. , Department of History, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, U.S.A. e-mail: o!ert.Dise #ni.ed# In an arti$le p#!lished in a re$ent n#m!er of  ZPE  , I presented eviden$e that a ma%or $han&ein the tit#lat#re of &#!ernatorial !enefi$iarii o$$#rred #nder the Antonines, ro#&hly !etweenAD '(( and ')*.+ his $han&e involved the a!andonment of the #se of &overnors/ personal names in !enefi$iari#s tit#lat#re and the adoption of the m#$h more &eneri$ title !enefi$iari#s $ons#laris. Use of this new title was nearly #niversal after AD ')*, and itappears on h#ndreds of ins$riptions a$ross the len&th and !eadth of the empire down to theearly fo#rth $ent#ry. o a$$o#nt for this $han&e in tit#lat#re, I s#&&ested that it refle$ted animperially mandated shift in the relationship !etween the !enefi$iarii and the &overnors, perhaps aimed at reformin& the role of patrona&e in the administration. I also proposed thatthis reform $han&ed the nat#re of !enefi$iarial servi$e. 0enefi$iarii hen$eforth wereatta$hed to the &overnorship, or more properly, to the offi$i#m $ons#laris, rather than to theindivid#al &ovenor. Conse1#ently, instead of servin& only for the term of the &overnor whoappointed them, they served indefinitely, #ntil promotion or retirement. 0#t while #se of the title !enefi$iari#s $ons#laris was nearly #niversal after AD ')*,e2$eptions still o$$#rred. 3n ten ins$riptions from the late se$ond and third $ent#ries, !enefi$iarii #se what mi&ht !e $alled /asso$iative tit#lat#re/, that is to say tit#lat#re thatdire$tly lin4s them with parti$#lar &overnors. his tit#lat#re ass#med two forms. he firstwas the traditional one that had !een in &eneral #se prior to the Antonines, $onsistin& of  !enefi$iari#s pl#s the &overnor/s name in the &enitive. his form appears on fo#r ins$riptions, all of them dedi$ations either to deities or to the &eni#s of some entity.+5 hese$ond form was new, altho#&h it had the same essential meanin& as the first: !enefi$iari#sei#s, identifyin& the !enefi$iari#s with the &overnor as /his !enefi$iari#s/. Nat#rally, this  form was #sed on the si2 ins$riptions dedi$ated to &overnors.+6 Aside from their pe$#liar tit#lat#re, these ten ins$riptions are indistin&#isha!le from other honorifi$ te2ts. 7eneri$allytitled !enefi$iarii $ons#laris ere$ted h#ndreds of dedi$ations to &ods and &enii d#rin& thelate se$ond and third $ent#ries. Dedi$ations to &overnors are far s$ar$er, !#t on a do8ente2ts from the post-Antonine era, !enefi$iarii hono#r &overnors witho#t lin4in& themselvesto the &overnors thro#&h their titles.+( 9ven the parti$#lar 1#alities addressed in thesededi$ations do not differ !etween te2ts with or witho#t asso$iative tit#lat#re. Amon& !othwe find te2ts dedi$ated to a &overnor/s well-!ein&,+ or in raise of his virt#es;+) te2ts of   !oth types even hail &overnors as patrons.+< It is $lear, then, that !enefi$iarii mi&ht e2presstheir esteem for a &overnor witho#t ne$essarily lin4in& themselves to him in their tit#lat#re.Asso$iative tit#lat#re therefore wo#ld seem to si&nify somethin& more than mere respe$t for a worthy s#perior. he e2planation for why some !enefi$iarii #sed asso$iative tit#lat#re while others did not is pro!a!ly to !e so#&ht in administrative relationships. A strai&htforward administrativeinterpretation of asso$iative tit#lat#re wo#ld !e that it indi$ates appontment of the !enefi$iarii !y the &overnors involved. A n#m!er of $onsiderations s#pport thisinterpretation. First, it is $lear why men mi&ht feel appre$iation for their appointments: as&#!ernatorial !enefi$iarii, their pay do#!led and they held positions that were for all intentsand p#rposes permanent,+= #nless they were promoted f#rther.+'* F#rthermore, appointment as a !enefi$iari#s also offered in$reased stat#s, as a prin$ipalis, and the $han$efor deta$hed d#ty at a statio with an a$$ompanyin& e2er$ise of some meas#re of independent a#thority.+'' Se$ond, the ma%ority of ins$riptions with asso$iative tit#lat#re - seven o#t of ten - were set#p !y individ#als, and this hi&h proportion of individ#al dedi$ations a$$ords with whatwo#ld !e e2pe$ted of post-Antonine appointment patterns. If servi$e as &#!ernatorial !enefi$iari#s d#rin& the late se$ond and third $ent#ries was essentially permanent, then mostva$an$ies wo#ld have o$$#rred individ#ally, when !enefi$iarii retired, were promoted, or died. Conse1#ently, most appointments to fill va$an$ies wo#ld also have o$$#rredindivid#ally, and most ins$riptions on whi$h &ratef#l men des$ri!e themselves as !enefi$iarii of a parti$#lar &overnor wo#ld !e individ#al dedi$ations. hird, the &ro#p dedi$ations on whi$h !enefi$iarii employ asso$iative tit#lat#re $an !elin4ed to appointment as well, for all three are asso$iated with spe$ial administrative  $ir$#mstan$es in whi$h !enefi$iarii wo#ld have !een named en !lo$.+' wo of theins$riptions are dedi$ations from >am!aesis +C0FI ) and )<, set #p !y !enefi$iari+iei#s and hono#rin& the same le&ate, ?. A#reli#s Comini#s, who was &overnor of N#midiain AD 6- 6).+'5 7ordian III had $ashiered le&io III A#&#sta in 5< for spportin& itsle&ate/s re!ellion, and it was not #ntil (5 that the le&ion was reinstated, !y @alerian. h#s,d#rin& Comini#s/ &overnorship, the normal so#r$e from whi$h &overnors re$r#ited !enefi$iarii for the provin$ial offi$i#m, that is to say, the le&ionary &arrison of the provin$e,did not e2ist in N#midia. he epi&raphi$ eviden$e does not reveal what administrativemeas#res were ta4en to $ompensate, !#t if le&ionaries $ontin#ed to !e #sed as &#!ernatorial !enefi$iarii, as was the r#le, then those mes#res ne$essarily wo#ld have involved either appointin& men from le&ions elsewhere or else !rin&in& in servin& !enefi$iarii from other  provin$es;+'6 in any $ase, the men involved wo#ld have had to !e transported a$onsidera!le distan$e to north Afri$a. Under the $ir$#mstan$es, appointin& or assi&nin& !enefi$iarii sin&ly to the provin$e wo#ld have !een administratively in$onvenient, and itseems more li4ely that they wo#ld have !een appointed in &ro#ps, perhaps even rotatin& a portion of the s$hola !enefiiarior#m in and o#t of the provin$e periodi$ally. If this is in fa$twhat too4 pla$e in N#midia d#rin& the period 5<-(5, then the asso$iation !etween !enefi$iarii and parti$#lar &overnors wo#ld have !een m#$h $loser than wo#ld normallyhave !een the $ase elsewhere. he third &ro#p ins$ription with asso$iative tit#lat#re $omes from 9!ora$#m in 0ritanniainferior +C0FI .+'( As restored !y most editors, its fra&mentary te2t reads: &enioB$olle&i+i  ---o! p+romotionem +B !+enef+i$iarii 7ordian+i.+' he 7ordian to whomthe te2t refers is ?. Antoni#s 7ordian#s Sempronian#s oman#s, who was appointed to&overn 0ritannia inferior, with his head1#arters at 9!ora$#m, when the provin$e was$reated in AD '.++') he o$$asion for this dedi$ation, then, andor the $olle$tiveidentifi$ation of its !enefi$iarii with the &overnor, was the re$r#itment of an offi$i#m for thenew provin$e and the res#ltin& appointment !y 7ordian of a s#!stantial n#m!er of men toserve as !enefi$iarii. Ass#min& that the readin& ---o! p+romotionem is $orre$t, the 9!ora$#m dedi$ation is oneof two te2ts with asso$iative tit#lat#re that refer openly to appointment or promotion, theother !ein& an altar from Narona in Dalmatia +C0FI 6=(, dedi$ated to E#ppiter 3ptim#s?a2im#s !y Cla#di#s ?ar$#s, fa$+t#s e2 optione !enefi$iar+i#s Sene$ionis  $o+ns+#laris ---. A third te2t $ontains what is pro!a!ly an indire$t referen$e. Dedi$ated to>. etroni#s @er#s, le&ate of 7alatia, in AD '=<, the te2t was $ommissioned !y two men, .I#li#s Sele#$#s and Septimi#s @alerian#s, !+enefi$iarii et $orni$#lari+i ei#s. It has !eens#&&ested that Sele#$#s was a !enefi$iari#s and @alerian#s a $orni$#lari#s,+'< and that thetwo men a$ted on !ehalf of their $ollea&#es in the offi$i#m,+'= !#t nothin& in the te2t itself demands s#$h an interpretation. An alternative view wo#ld !e that @er#s appointed !othmen as !enefi$iarii and then promoted them to $orni$#larii. romotion from !enefi$iari#s to$orni$#lari#s seem to have !een rare in the empire as a whole;+* indeed, &iven the lar&en#m!er of !enefi$iarii in administrative servi$e and the small n#m!er of posts availa!lef#rther on in the $#rs#s, servi$e as a !enefi$iari#s $ons#laris appears to have f#n$tioned aswhat one s$holar of the army $areer system $alled an /effi$ien$y !ar/.+' 0#t on the other hand, there is a mid-third $ent#ry ins$ription, also from An$yra, on whi$h the dedi$ator very$learly in$l#des the !enefi$iari#s-$orni$#lari#s se1#en$e.+ his s#&&ests that, whileelevation dire$tly from !enefi$iari#s to $orni$#lari#s mi&ht have !een #n#s#al elsewhere, itwas not so very e2traordinary in 7alatia. he fa$t that so few asso$iative tit#lat#re te2ts refer to advan$ement wo#ld presentdiffi$#lties, were it not the $ase that appointment and promotion re$eive almost no mentionon other ins$riptions. here is only one non-asso$iative te2t that !oth hono#rs a &overnor and refers openly to his promotion of the !enefi$iari#s involved. A dedi$ation from>am!aesis, whi$h $hara$teri8es the &overnor as patrono in$onpara!ili and states that thededi$ator was promot#s a! eo,+5; this is another $ase where the s#rro#ndin&$ir$#mstan$es are #n#s#al: the promotion to whi$h the te2t refers was to !enefi$iari#sdomi$#rator, in other words, $ham!erlain within the &overnor/s personal ho#sehold;f#rthermore, the le&ate named in the ins$ription, C. omponi#s ?a&n#s, &ovrned N#midiain the 6*s, that is, d#rin& the a!sen$e of III A#&#sta.+6 Another non-asso$iative te2tmentions promotion, !#t witho#t referen$e to any &overnor. his is an altar to ?er$#ry from0ro$av#m in 0ritannia inferior dedi$ated !y a soldier of le&io @I vi$tri2 named ?er$ator,who was promot#s !+enef+i$iari#s $o+ns+#laris.+( ?er$ator ins$ri!ed his altar with a$ons#lar date of AD '), whi$h means that he was almost $ertainly one of the !enefi$iarii7ordiani in the 9!ora$#m te2t, !#t he did not $hoose to des$ri!e himself as s#$h in this his personal dedi$ation. wo other te2ts all#de to promotion, rather than openly #sin&terminolo&y s#$h as promot#s. 3ne is the mid-third $ent#ry !enefi$iari#s-$orni$#lari#s te2t
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