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Benefits of Hong Kong Chinese CEOs' confucian ans Daoist leadership styles.pdf

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal Benefits of Hong Kong Chinese CEOs' Confucian and Daoist leadership styles Chau#kiu Cheung Andrew Chi#fai Chan Article information: Downloaded by Teesside University At 03:24 09 October 2014 (PT) To cite this document: Chau#kiu Cheung Andrew Chi#fai Chan, (2008), Benefits of Hong Kong Chinese CEOs' Confucian and Daoist leadership styles , Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 29 Iss 6 pp. 474 - 503 Permanent link to this document: ht
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  Leadership & Organization Development Journal Benefits of Hong Kong Chinese CEOs' Confucian and Daoist leadership styles Chau#kiu Cheung Andrew Chi#fai Chan  Article information: To cite this document:Chau#kiu Cheung Andrew Chi#fai Chan, (2008), Benefits of Hong Kong Chinese CEOs' Confucian andDaoist leadership styles , Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 29 Iss 6 pp. 474 - 503 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730810894159 Downloaded on: 09 October 2014, At: 03:24 (PT)References: this document contains references to 95 other documents.To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.comThe fulltext of this document has been downloaded 2411 times since 2008* Users who downloaded this article also downloaded: H.#C. de Bettignies, K. Ip, B. Xuezhu, A. Habisch, G. Lenssen, Po Keung Ip, (2011), Practical wisdom of Confucian ethical leadership: a critical inquiry , Journal of Management Development, Vol. 30 Iss 7/8 pp.685-696Jingping Sun, (2009), Comparisons between transformational leadership and the Confucian idea of transformation , International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 11 pp. 343-375H.#C. de Bettignies, K. Ip, B. Xuezhu, A. Habisch, G. Lenssen, Mike Thompson, (2011), Chinese hedonicvalues and the Chinese classical virtues: managing the tension , Journal of Management Development,Vol. 30 Iss 7/8 pp. 709-723 Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by 312600 [] For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald forAuthors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelinesare available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.  About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The companymanages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well asproviding an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committeeon Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archivepreservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   T  e  e  s  s   i   d  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   A   t   0   3  :   2   4   0   9   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  Benefits of Hong Kong ChineseCEOs’ Confucian and Daoistleadership styles Chau-kiu Cheung  Department of Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, and  Andrew Chi-fai Chan  Department of Marketing, Chinese University of Hong Kong,Sha Tin, Hong Kong  Abstract Purpose  – Because of the paucity of information about what and how Chinese leadership stylescontribute to organizational success, this study aims to elucidate Chinese leadership styles withreference to Confucian and Daoist schemata, relate them to organizational success, and explicate therelationships by exploring a grounded theory. Design/methodology/approach  – Toobtainsuchknowledge, thisstudyappliesagrounded theoryapproach to analyzing interview data from 11 Hong Kong Chinese CEOs. Findings  – Results delineated the Chinese leadership styles based on relationship building, virtuouspractice, hierarchical and centralized organization, and humility and self-effacement. These practiceswere conducive to trust, cooperation, competence, and other achievements in the staff. Thecontributions of the Chinese leadership styles tend to reflect a security theory in that sustainingfollowers’ security appears to mediate leadership practices and their outcomes. Originality/value  – Because the tradition of Confucian and Daoist teachings can be a basis forsuccessful Chinese leadership styles, the teachings can still be valuable for leadership developmenttoday. Keywords  Chief executives, Confucianism, Management styles, Hong Kong Paper type  Research paper In choosing a favorable leadership style among a plurality of styles, it is imperativeto explore the benefit of the particular style. For this purpose, the present studyfocuses on the delineation of Chinese leadership styles as contrasted with prevailingWestern leadership styles and the identification of the benefits based on interviewswith 11 Hong Kong Chinese chief executive officers (CEOs). It accordingly contraststhe Chinese leadership styles of Confucian and Daoist brands with the Westernleadership styles of transactional, transformational, Christian or servant, andconnective models. Whereas the contrast witnesses both differences and similaritiesin varying components of the styles, it illustrates that, as a whole, the Chinesestyles are distinguishable from the Western styles. Furthermore, the study aspiresto illustrate the usefulness of Chinese leadership styles for achieving their aim of effective leadership. This usefulness is a basis for the sharing of good leadershippractices internationally to facilitate cross-fertilization in international leadershipdevelopment. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0143-7739.htm LODJ29,6 474 Received December 2007Revised March 2008Accepted March 2008 Leadership & OrganizationDevelopment JournalVol. 29 No. 6, 2008pp. 474-503 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited0143-7739DOI 10.1108/01437730810894159    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   T  e  e  s  s   i   d  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   A   t   0   3  :   2   4   0   9   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  The study of the Chinese leadership styles or perspectives is paramount for at leastfive related reasons. These reasons pertain to the:(1) globalization of leadership practices in organizations and corporationsspreading across national and cultural borders (Marcoulides  et al. , 1998);(2) significance of Chinese (Guan, 2001) and Hong Kong (Chiu and Lui, 2004;Forrest  et al. , 2004) organizations and corporations in the never endingglobalization endeavor;(3) international division of labor and dependency (Ashley, 1997), involvingChinese and Hong Kong organizations and corporations (Chan, 2004);(4) international employment and deployment of personnel relating Chinese tonon-Chinese working people (Borstorff   et al. , 1997; Sin and Chu, 2000); and(5) international development of leadership through knowledge sharing andcross-fertilization involving Chinese as well as Western knowledge (Selmer,2001).Notably, Hong Kong has been functioning as a financial center that attracts andfacilitates investment for international development for several decades (So, 1986). Itsknowledge on flexible development and economic structure, free capitalism, businessgrowth, and cross-cultural management is appreciable for international learning(Hofstede  et al. , 2002; Ng and Poon, 2004). Without doubt, the leadership style in HongKong has also been a prominent topic for research and learning across borders (Chu,2004; Redding, 1990; Wong, 1988). Such learning or exposure is promising for thedevelopment of leadership on an international scale (Cao, 1999). Eventually,international leadership development would fuel globalization (Ralston  et al. , 1996),which in turn reinforces the need for assembling knowledge about leadershipinternationally.Of concern are Chinese leadership styles that demonstrate effective leadershipoutcomes. Leadership is clearly not a showoff but is instrumental to the aim of leading.Essentially, leadership refers to mobilizing collective action to achieve a goal. It isinevitably a manipulation that explicitly or subtly capitalizes on other people’s effort(Greenleaf, 1977). Because of people’s resistance to manipulation, leadership is notnecessarily successful. Effective leadership styles need to circumvent resistance inorder to achieve their goals. Besides, leading people to exert collective action typicallyyields favorable outcomes (Zaccaro, 2001). Such outcomes hinge on effectiveleadership, which necessarily includes that of Chinese leaders. Nevertheless, effectiveChinese leadership styles have received less attention than Western or mostly NorthAmerican ones (Ardichvili, 2001; Littrell, 2002). Such concentration attention toWestern leadership styles may not be adequate in the current world characterized byglobalization and cross-cultural management (Manning, 2003; Marcoulides  et al. , 1998).Working people in many places of the world inevitably need to fit themselves to theChinese style of leadership in order to work effectively (Ashby and Miles, 2002;Chemers, 1997; Mendonca and Kanungo, 1994).In order to ascertain Chinese leadership styles, the study is obliged to illustrateways that the styles engender desirable outcomes expected of leadership. As such,generating effective managerial outcomes would be a demarcation criterion foridentifying leadership styles or perspectives (Zaccaro, 2001). The criterion is Chineseleadershipstyles 475    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   T  e  e  s  s   i   d  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   A   t   0   3  :   2   4   0   9   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )  reasonable in view of evidence supporting the contribution of various forms of leadership toacceptance ofand satisfaction with leadership (Ardichvili,2001; Felfe andSchyns, 2006), work and organizational commitment (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990;Walumbwa  et al. , 2005), work involvement (Howard, 1992), job or work satisfaction(Smith  et al. , 1994; Walumbwa  et al. , 2005), job performance or competence (Epstein,2001; Helgstrand and Stuhlmacher, 1999; Nikolaou, 2003; Jung and Avolio, 1999), andcreativity and innovation (Lee and Chang, 2006). Among these forms of leadership,transformational leadership appears to be a common cause of various favorableoutcomes (Pearce and Sims, 2002; Walumbwa  et al. , 2005). Another notable leadershipstyle is the transactional one, which can be conducive to effective outcomes accordingto some theory and research (Jung and Avolio, 1999; Podsacoff and MacKenzie, 1998).These leadership styles from the Western perspective are thereby important referencepoints for identifying effective Chinese leadership styles. Leadership styles in Chinese and Western perspectives Salient in the Chinese leadership styles are those of Confucian and Daoist srcins,whereas Western styles consist of transactional, transformational, Christian orservant, and connective prototypes. Despite their disparity in origin, Chinese andWestern styles share some similar practices. Nevertheless, each style is distinctivefrom the others under close examination (see Table I).Confucian leadership has been evolving from the Confucian perspective or norm forat least 3,000 years of preaching and practice. The Confucian perspective took shape,thank to Confucius’s (551-479 BC  ) consolidation work. Nevertheless, the perspectiveemerged several hundred years before Confucius, most visibly by the beginning of theZhou Dynasty, together with the creation of Zhou propriety or ritual. In Chinese,Confucianism meansthe ideology ofscholars, gentlemen, or ritual managers(Liu,1997;Pan and Yu, 2001). As such, rituality and its conformity in the form of propriety orpoliteness are at the center of Confucianism. This conformity forms virtue or morality,which is the aim of education and cultivation, which differentiate gentlemen fromuncultivated people (Fernandez, 2004). Within the scope of virtue, benevolence orhumaneness is the core, which deals with kindness, love, forgiving, magnanimity, andsensitivity to other people, including subordinates (Fernandez, 2004; Pan and Yu, 2001;Schlevogt, 2002). Meanwhile, keeping promise, justice, righteousness, unselfishness,and loyalty together constitute virtue. In all, virtuous practice is the foremostcomponent in Confucian leadership. Such practice, according to Confucianism, hingeson the rule of man, put in a right position to exert authority hierarchically. TheConfucian ideal is to have a sage-like man as the leader to maintain social order byvirtuous practice. In this juncture, the Confucian tenets of definitionism, relationalism,and harmony are crucial. Definitionism maintains that every person must have aproper name, title, or role that prescribes behavior (Liu, 1997). As such, only the leadercan play the leader’s role and subordinates should follow. It implies that one cannotinterfere with another’s business and one’s business vanishes once one is not in theposition. This is the rule of man such that everyone has one’s unique rules andpractices. Importantly, the leader has a role to innovate and foster innovation amongfollowers, in order to differentiate one leader from another (Pan and Yu, 2001).Restriction on one’s role further extends to dyadic and social relationships involvingpairs of the ruler and ruled, parent and offspring, husband and wife, and so on, in the LODJ29,6 476    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   T  e  e  s  s   i   d  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   A   t   0   3  :   2   4   0   9   O  c   t  o   b  e  r   2   0   1   4   (   P   T   )

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