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  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that KUSHAGRA PUNDEER a student of INTERNATIONAL CENTRE OF APPLIED SCIENCES, MANIPAL UNIVERSITY has successfully completed his training with from 2nd to 14th Jan 2012 under BHEL, Bhopal. MR. D. PRABHAKAR (DGM WTM BLOCK- 1)
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am greatly thankful to B.H.E.L for providing me vital and much needed practical experience in the field of machines and manufacturing. I express my gratitude to Human Resource and Development department for giving me a chance to feel the industrial environment. I am also thankful to the B.H.E.L engineers and the technical staff for giving their precious time for helping me in understanding various aspects of machine manufacturing and their assembly. I am also thankful to my training co- coordinator Mr. D Prabhakar (DGM WTM block-1) and his team for their kind support. KUSHAGRA PUNDEER ICAS, Manipal University MECHANICAL
  • 4. INDEX  Bharat Heavy Electrical Plant Brief  Quality Policies  Research and Development  WTM Block  Bay 1  Bay 2  Governor Assembly  Bay 3  Bay 4  Bay 5  Bay 6  Bay 7  Bay 8  Hydro Turbines  Classification of Impulse and Reaction Turbine  Francis Turbine  Pelton Turbine  Kaplan Turbine  Hydro Turbine Governor  Spiral case and Stay Ring  Wicket Gate and Operating Mechanism  Construction of Runner Hub and Blade  Power of Water Turbine  Design and Application  Parts manufactured for current projects  Conclusion
  • 5. Bharat Heavy Electrical Plant It is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, both in energy and infrastructure. It is located at about 7 km from Bhopal railway station and about 18 km from Airport. With technical assistance from AssociatedElectricals (India) Ltd, a UK based company it came into existence on 29th of August, 1956.Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru dedicated this plant to the nation on 6th November 1960. BHEL Bhopal manufactures Hydro, Steam, Marine & Nuclear Turbines; Heat Exchangers; Hydro & Turbo Generators; Transformers;Switchgears; Control gears; Transportation Equipment; Capacitor; Bushings; Electric Motors and Rectifiers. BHEL Bhopal has its own Laboratories for material testing and instrument calibration which are accredited with ISO 17025 byNABL. The Hydro Laboratory, Ultra High Voltage laboratory and Centre for Electric Transportation are the only laboratories of its kind in this part of the world. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is country’s ‘Navratna’ company and has earned its place among very prestigious national and international companies.It finds place among the top class companies of the world for manufacture of electrical equipment. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economyviz., Power Generation's & Transmission,Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication,Renewable Energy, Defense,etc. The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in the “Fortune International-500” and is ranked among the top 10 companies in the world, manufacturing power generation equipment. BHEL is the only PSU among the 12 Indian companies to figure in “ForbesAsia Fabulous 50” list. BHEL has:- · Installed equipment for over 100000 MW of power generation--- for utilities captive and industrial users. · Supplied over 225000MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in transmission and distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). · Supplied over 25000 motors with drive control systems to power projects, petrochemicals,refineries,steel,aluminum, fertilizers, cement plants etc. · Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12000 km railway network. Supplied over one million valves to power plants and other Industries
  • 6. QUALITY POLICIES Towards meeting its Quality Policy, BHEL is using the vehicle of Quality Management Systems,which are certified to ISO 9001:2000series of Standards by Internationally acclaimed certifying agency, BVQI. Corporate Quality and Unit level Quality structure enables requisite planning, control and implementation of Companywide Quality Policy and Objectives which are linked to the Company's Vision statement. Corporate Quality derives strength from direct reporting to Chairman and Managing Director of the Company. Other than traditional Quality functions, today the focus is on:- · Propagating Quality Management Systems and Total Quality Management. · Formulating, implementing and monitoring, "Improvement Plans" with focus on internal and external Customer Satisfaction. · Investigations and preventive actions on Critical Quality Issues. Calibration and testing laboratories of BHEL are accredited under the National AccreditationBoard for Calibration and Testing Laboratories (NABL) scheme of Laboratory Accreditation, which has got mutual recognition with Asia Pacific Laboratory AccreditationConference and International Laboratory Accreditation Conference.As a result of its thrust on quality and technology, BHEL enjoys national and international recognition in the form of Product Certification by International Bodies like ASME, API and Plant Approvals by agencies like Lloyds Registerof Shipping, U.K., Chief Controller of Explosives India, TUV Germany etc. In its movementtowards Business Excellence and with the objective of achieving International level of Quality, BHEL has adopted European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) modelfor Business Excellence.Through this modeland annual self-assessmentexercise, BHEL is institutionalizing continuous improvementin all its operations.
  • 7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations, BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous improvement of products and related technologies,and developmentof new products.BHEL's commitment to advancement of technology is reflected in its involvement in the development of futuristic technologies like fuel cells and superconducting generators. BHEL's investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sectorin India. During the year 2010-11,BHEL invested Rs.10050 Million on R&D efforts-21% higher than the previous year. R&D and technology developmentare of strategic importance to BHEL as it operates in a competitive environment where technologyis a key driver. Technology developmentefforts undertaken by BHEL have led to the filing of patents and copyrights at the rate of nearly one a day, significantly enhancing the company's intellectual capital. In 2010-11,BHEL filed 303 patents and copyrights,enhancing the company's intellectual capital to 1,438 patents and copyrights filed,which are in productive use in the company's business.The year saw a massive growth in grant of patents and copyrights.A total of 91 patents and copyrights were granted during the year. Currently, 532 patents & copyrights are in force.Notably, BHEL has been ranked as the Number One Company in India in terms of filing of patents by the Economic Times Intelligence Group. Significantly, BHEL is one of the only four Indian companies and the only Indian Public Sector Enterprise figuring in 'The Global Innovation 1000' of Booz& Co., a list of 1,000 publicly-traded companies which are the biggestspenders on R&D in the world. BHEL has also won the coveted CII-ThompsonReuters Innovation Award 2010 in the 'Hi-tech Corporate' category.The award recognizes BHEL's innovation and entrepreneurship in India based on number of patents and efficiencyand impact of innovation as measured by patent citations. The company's Corporate R&D division at Hyderabad leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range. Researchand ProductDevelopment(RPD)centers at all its manufacturing divisions play a complementaryrole. BHEL has introduced,
  • 8. in the recent past, several state of the art products.Commercializationof products and systems developedby way of in-house Researchand Developmentcontributed Rs.77,580 Million corresponding to around 18% to the company's total turnover in 2010-11.In keeping with the National commitmentto a clean environment, BHEL has developed the technology for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants and is pursuing the development of Advance Ultra Supercritical Thermal Power Plants in the country. BHEL is also actively working on a number of projects in futuristic areas like Clean Coal Technology,Nano Technology, Fuel Cells, Superconductivity and thin film solar cells,etc. to advance the developmentof technologies for power and industry sector.The engineering and technology character of the organization will be further enhanced with increased focus on innovation and R&D.
  • 9. WTM BLOCK Water turbine manufacturing block (block-1)is one of the biggestblocks in the BHEL complex.Hydro turbine and its associated components are machined and manufactured here. The entire block is divided into differentbays. BAY-1 It houses the following machines:  Deep drilling machine - Used to drill holes in the shaft.  CNC lathe– ComputerNumerically Controlled Lathes
  • 10.  Planing machine-uses linear relative motion between the work piece and a single-pointcutting tool to machine a linear tool path.  Horizontalfloor boring machine-boresholes in horizontal direction.  Verticalboring machine-work piece rotates around a vertical axis.
  • 11.  CNC verticalboring machine-ComputerNumerically Controlled vertical boring machine.  Radial drilling machines-are known for their precision,accuracy and efficiency.These are designed to meetthe most exacting requirements of engineering and allied operations and utility. They ensure smooth rotation of column and avoid angular deflectionof spindle axis.  Slotting machine-for perfectslotting and planning of materials.
  • 12. Components machined:- Shaft Log for lever Sleeve Bush housing Guide bent stock Hexagonal screw head Guiding piece Bush housing BAY-2 It houses the following machines: Verticalboringmachine Table planing machine Lathe machine CNC end milling machine CNC horizontaltable borer Make-Craven Boring spindle diameter-130mm Maximum load capacity-12 tons Horizontalboring machine Spindle diameter-88.9mm Swiveling table size-1067*1067mm Sliding table size-1676*1067mm Maximum facing head mill face-1219mm CNC lathe machine Components machined: Rubberseal clamping ring  Bottom cover plate Bush Guide vane Extensiontube  Deflector
  • 13. GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY-Bay2 also houses the governor assemblyarea. Governor Assembly WTM Components Manufactured:  Guide Bearing  MIV Servo Motor  Nozzle Assembly-Nozzle tip
  • 14.  Anti-Vacuum Valve  Pressure Receiver  By pass valve BAY-3 It houses the following machines: Vertical boringmachine Table diameter-6705mm Maximum job diameter-7696mm Maximum capacity-90 tons  CNC verticalboring machine  Runner blade turningmachine Maximum length of work-8000mm Maximum diameter that can be turned-4000mm Length of job that can be done-7200mm   
  • 15. Column boringmachine Table diameter-5523mm Maximum external diameter that can be machined-9000mm Stroke of RAM-3353mm Maximum capacity-100 tons Componentsmachined: · Top cover · Inner turbine housing · Spacer flange · Pivoted ring cover · Sealing flange · Stay ring · Runner blade BAY-4 It houses the following machines:  Lathe machine CNC lathe machine Table planing machine End milling machine Distance between columns-4242mm Maximum under bridge movement-3276mm Maximum length of machines-9144mm Maximum height up to vertical head-3200mm Maximum capacity-100 tons 
  • 16. Horizontalboring and milling machine Spindle diameter-203mm Traverse X-8992mm,Y-4500mm,Z-1981mm Minimum height of spindle center to bed-760mm Breaklathe machine Sliding bed and center height-1422mm Base plate and center height-2108mm Saddles rotation over sliding bed-2286mm Distance between centre-7621mm Length of sliding bed-9905mm Diameter of face plate-2438mm Weightcapacity-50 tons Verticalmilling machine Height between spindle nose and table-660mm Spindle to face column-559mm Slotting machine Maximum stroke -530mm Minimum stroke -190mm Radialdrilling machine Verticalboringmachine    
  • 17. CNC horizontalfloor borer Boring spindle diameter-200mm Column guide way-1050mm Headstockvertical movement-5000mm Spindle / rack movement-2000/1600mm Rotary table size-3150*3150mm Components machined: Trunnion Sleeve screw Bottom sleeve Top cover FABRICATION SHOP BAY-5 It is the place where degreasing and fabrication work takes place. It houses the following machines: Electro slag welding machine Job completed inone pass for job of thickness 40-110mm single nose is used for job of thickness greater than 110mm double nose is used lesserdefectsas compared to manual arc welding 
  • 18.   Oven heating fuel-LPG Maximum heating temperature-150 degree Celsius Maximum size-W-5250mm Transformertank assembly-H-5000mm Components fabricated:  Distributor Pivot ring Transformertank BAY-6 It houses the following machines and equipment: Manualarc welding Manualgrinding Submergedarc welding
  • 19. BAY-7 It houses the following machines: Submergedarc welding Robotic arm welding Shot blast plant-Used fortreating corroded parts Paint shop-Used to paint shot blasted components Components fabricated: Transformertank Spacerflange Bay-8 It houses the heat exchanger and coolerassembly. Following machines are situated in this bay: Lahardeep gun drilling machine Radialdrilling machine Arboga CNC drilling machine Multi-spindle drilling machine Traverse x-7000mm y-8500mm z-350mm No. of spindles-8 Min. pitch-100mm Max.pitch-200mm per spindle drilling capacity-40mm Spindle speed-71-1400RPM Spindle feed-10-1000 mm/min No. of drilling motors-2
  • 20. Lathe machine Components machined: Buffel Tube plate Sleeve PRODUCT INFORMATION HYDRO TURBINES:- 1. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT: The purpose of a hydro-electric power plant is to harness power from water. As such it incorporates a no. of water driven prime movers known as water turbines. The water or hydraulic Turbine converts the kinetic and potential energies possessed by water into mechanical power. The hydraulic turbine when coupled to a generator produces electric power. 2. Advantages of hydraulic electric power: a. Cheap and immune to inflation b. inexhaustible c. This can be developed wherever water continuously flowing under pressure. d. robust, reliable, lest maintenance. e. Operate in high efficiencylevel. f. Quick loading and off-loading flexibilities. g. Idealpeaking partner of base load thermal/nuclear. h. Multipurpose benefits i. No pollution to environment.
  • 21. 3. INTRODUCTION: Hydraulic turbines are highest efficiencyprime movers used for power productionwhich utilize the energy of water ways. The hydraulic energy contained in the stream is converted by to mechanical power. Basically these are of two types: a. Impulse turbines b. Reaction turbines In an impulse turbine the water possessing kinetic energy is supplied to the runner at Atmospheric pressure.The flow through the runner is entirely at atmospheric pressure,the force exerted by the water being due to the impulse of the jet. In a reaction turbine the water supplied to the runner possesses energy which is partly kinetic and partly pressure.Both types of energies are converted into work in the runner which results in a drop of pressure and absolute velocity of water.
  • 22. FURTHER CLASSIFICATIONOF IMPULSE AND REACTION TURBINES: Impulse turbine: - pelton turbine Reaction turbine: - Francis turbine - Kaplan and Propellerturbine Propellerturbines are mainly Kaplan turbines but Moody, nagler and Bell turbines may be found in market. The main difference between Kaplan and other type of propellerturbines is that the formerhas adjusted runner blades. FRANCIS TURBINE-  These are inward flow reaction turbine.  Used when operating head is in the range of 30-500m.  These are medium pressure turbine.  Total machines -190  Megawatt capacity-5-165 MW  Runner radius-1050-5250mm
  • 23. FRANCIS TURBINES The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts. The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine, giving up its energy. A casement is needed to contain the water flow. The turbine is located between the high-pressure water source and the low-pressure water exit, usually at the base of a dam. The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the turbine wheel, known as a runner. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes, causing the runner to spin. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.
  • 24. As the water moves through the runner, it’s spinning radius decreases, further acting on the runner. For an analogy, imagine swinging a ball on a string around in a circle; if the string is pulled short, the ball spins faster due to the conservation of angular momentum. This property,in addition to the water's pressure,helps Francis and other inward-flow turbines harness water energy efficiently. At the exit, water acts on cup-shaped runner features, leaving with no swirl and very little kinetic or potential energy. The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure.
  • 25. MAIN COMPONENTS OF FRANCIS TURBINE: 1. SPIRAL CASING: in order to distribute the water around the guide ring evenly the scrollcasing is designed with a cross sectional area reducing uniformly around the circumference,maximum at the entrance and nearly zero at tip. This gives spiral shape and hence is named as spiral casing. These are also provided with inspectionholes and also with pressure gauge connection. 2. GUIDE MECHANISM: these have a cross sectional area of aero foil section. This particular cross sectionallows water to pass over them without forming eddies and with minimum frictional losses.It is mounted on a ring which is connected to generator shaft by means of a regulating shaft depending upon load, speed of turbine is controlled by a governor which basically deals with the guide vane opening. 3. DRAFT TUBE: It is a conduit which connects the runner exit to the Tail race. A tube should be drowned approx. below the lowest tail race level. It basically increases the workable head of turbine by an amount equal to the height of the runner outlet, thus making it possibleto install the turbine above the tail race level without loss of head. APPLICATION OF FRANCIS TURBINES Francis turbines may be designed fora wide range of heads and flows. This, along with their high efficiency,has made them the most widely used turbine in the world. Francis type units cover a head range from 20 to 700 meters, and their output power varies from just a few kilowatts up to one Giga watt. Large Francis turbines are individually designed foreach site to operate at the highest possible efficiency,typically over 90%. In addition to electrical production, they may also be used for pumped storage, where a reservoir is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) during low power demand, and then reversed and used to generate power during peak demand.
  • 26. Construction of spherical valve Valve disc of spherical valve Spherical valve with dismantling joint Spheric
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