Bhurshut Rajya

Bhurshut Rajya Country State District(s) Website India West Bengal Howrah howrah.gov.in Bhurishrestha Kingdom or Bhurishrestha Rajya (Bengali: ভুিরেশষ রাজয) was an ancient and medieval Bengali kingdom spread across what are now Howrah, Hooghly and Nadia districts extending to some parts of Bardhaman and Purba Medinipur in the Indian state of West Bengal. It maintained sovereignty for a large part of its history (except nominal suzerainty to Delhi Sultans for few years during early Muslim rule o
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  Bhurshut Rajya Country India State West Bengal District(s) Howrah Website howrah.gov.in Bhurishrestha Kingdom or  Bhurishrestha Rajya (Bengali:  ভু  িরেশষ রাজয  ) was an ancientand medievalBengalikingdom spread across what are nowHowrah,Hooghlyand Nadia  districts extending to some parts of BardhamanandPurba Medinipur in the Indian state of West Bengal. It maintained sovereignty for a large part of its history (except nominalsuzerainty to Delhi Sultans for few years during early Muslim rule of India) from almost600 B.C to 1712 A.D when it was reduced to a Zamindarias part of Bardhaman Raj.  Bardhaman was then virtually independent from 1707 or Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb'sdeath to 1765 when it became subject of  British India.Bhurishresthahad a high concentration of big merchants or   Bhurisresthis , and as such came to be colloquiallycalled   Bhurshut by which name a small town inHowrah district and a village called Rajbalhat nearby in Hooghly districtsurvives even to this day with remains from these glorious past.Location of Bhurishrestha kingdom in present day West Bengal  Contents ã 1 Early History ã 2 Later History ã 3 Garh Bhawanipur  ã 4   Bhurshut Temples ã 5 Madangopaljiu and Amta Mandirs ã 6 Ramrajatala ã 7 Taraknath Shiva Temple of Tarakeshwar  ã 8 Trivia ã 9 References Early History Past history of Howrah can be traced in accounts of our ancient scholars. According tothem, Howrah was closely knitted with the ancient Sumha region of Rarh and thesouthern part of this Sumha was constituted within present region of Howrah andMidnapore. Bhurisrestha, the ancient Hindu Kingdom, which existed even before thearrival of the British East India Company comprises most of the areas of present districtof Howrah. [1] The name Howrah came from the word Haor - meaning in Bengali, a place for exit of water and mud. Though it may possibly be derived from a village named Harirah whichwas located in or about the site of modern day Howrah City. [1] Singur or Singhapur (Lion City) of Hooghly was the srcinal capital of Bhurishrestha.VijayaSingha the ousted prince went with his daredevil comrades to Sri Lanka via crudewooden ships fromGadiaraor Buttor Port(Venetian explorer Ceasare de Federici, who travelled India during 1565–79, mentioned a place called Buttor in his journal circa 1578coinciding with modern neighbourhood Betor) of Howrah. [1] As per Sri LankahistoryMahavamsa, written around 400 AD by the monk   Nagasena,  using theDipavamsaand Attakatha as sources, correlates well with Indian histories of the period.Ceylon  before colonization by Bengalis was earlier inhabited by ancient tribe Veddasto whomRavanaof Ramayanabelonged. With the arrival of Prince Vijay and his 700 followers history of theSinhalese started. Vijaya was eldest son of King Sinhabahu ( Man with Lion arms ) and his Queen Sinhasivali of Bhurishrestha Kingdom. TheMahavamsa claims that Vijaya landed on same day as the death of the Buddha (Geiger's preface to Mahavamsa). Vijaya married Kuveni (local Vedda princess) like his armymarrying off local Vedda women giving rise to modern Sinhala race who speak alanguage phonetically much similar to modern Bengali. Vijaya landed on Sri Lanka near Mahathitha (Manthota or Mannar    ), and named the island Thambaparni ('copper-colored palms). These are attested inPtolemy's map of the ancient world. Mahavamsa alsoclaims, Lord Buddha visiting Sri Lanka three times. Firstly, to stop a war between a Naga  (Vedda) king and his son-in-law who were fighting over a ruby chair. It is said that on hislast visit, he left his foot mark onSripada (Adam's Peak). Tamirabharani was the old name for second longest river in Sri Lanka (known as Malwatu Oya in Sinhala & AruviAru in Tamil). This river was main supply route connecting the capital,AnuradhapuratoMahathitha (Mannar). The waterway was used by Greek and Chinese ships traveling thesouthern Silk Route. Mahathitha was an ancient port linking Sri Lanka toBengal and Persian Gulf . [1] Later History Bhurishrestha kingdom grew up in southern parts of Rarh region and was the main centre of Rarhi Brahmins. It wass ruled by a Sur King during the period when thePala Empire was a rising force. At a later time there is mention of a 'Dhibar' or fisherman dynasty, possibly in the 14th-15th century. Subsequently the area came to be ruled by a Brahminfamily who defeated the Dhibars and their leader married the Princess. [2] Shanibhangar, the last Dhibar King of    Bhurshut Raj , was defeated by Chaturanan Neogi. Chaturanan’s grandson (by his daughter) Krishna Roy then took over the reigns of  Bhurshut . Krishna Roy’s great grandson Pratap Narayan Roy (1652-1684) was thegreatest of  Bhurshut royals. [2] Ain-i-Akbarimentions that amongst the 31 Mahals under Sirkar Suleimanabad, thehighest revenue was earned by Basandhari Pargana, followed by   Bhurshut . No other Pargana under Sirkar Satgaonor Sirkar Mandaran earned so much.   Bhurshut kingdomhad three main forts at Garh Bhabanipur, Pandua (Pendo or Pedo Basantapur) andRajbalhat. Ruins of these forts and also a place called Dihi Bhurshut in Howrah district,can still be found acrossDamodar from Rajbalhat. [2] In 1713, Bengal Council of British East India Company, on the accession of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar, grand son of Aurangzeb, to Delhi throne, sent a deputation with a petitionfor a settlement of five villages on west bank of Hooghly river along with 33 villages onthe east bank. The list of villages appears in the Consultation Book of the Council dated 4May 1714. The five villages on the west bank on Hooghly river were: 'Salica' (Salkia),'Harirah' (Howrah), 'Cassundeah' (Kasundia), 'Ramkrishnopoor' (Ramkrishnapur), and'Battar' (Bator): all identifiable with localities of modern Howrah city. The deputation was successful except for the five villages. By 1728, most of the present dayHowrahDistrictwas part of Burdwan.After Battle of Plassey,as per the treaty signed with the  Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim on 11 October 1760, Howrah district (then in Burdwan)came under British East India Company.In 1787, Hooghly district was formed, and by 1819, whole of the present day Howrah district was added to it. Then Howrah wasseparated from the Hooghly district in 1843. [1] Garh Bhawanipur  Raybaghini Bhabashankari eliminating invading MuslimsGarh Bhawanipur was the capital of Bhurisrestha Rajya (kingdom) at the ruling time of Mughal emperor Akbar. It was then called Bhursut Pargana. Bhawanipur now situated atChitrasenpur under Udaynarayanpur Block in Howrah District. Nearest Railway Stationis Amta 13 km away from Bussto Bhawanipur on the Betai Dihi-Bhursut Road. [3] Maharani Bhavashankari,wife of Maharaja Rudranarayan,was the most popular and strongest queen of Bhurisresthya Rajya. She miserably defeated Osman Khan Lohani,chief commander of Kotlu Khan, the then Pathan Sultan of Kalinga (presently Orissa) atBashuriin the battle, herself leading in the field along with her female regiment bravingheavy downpour on the rainyday of 12th September, 1603 A.D. The Muslim army of Pathans wanted to wrest   Bhurshut rich in resources so that they could fight off the newMughals emperors. To the Bengali people however both MughalsandPathans were Muslim colonialists and equal, hence   Bhurshut maintained strict neutrality. Raja BhupatiKrishna Ray, the commander of the Pendo fort, made Sarbadhinayak, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces by her. Apart from that she took immediate steps to strengthenthe army in terms of numbers as well as infrastructure. She herself took the responsibilityof their training. At that time Bhavashankari frequently visited the Chhaunapur fortnamed after Chhauni or Cantonment. During her visits she used to visit the Bhavani  temple at the nearby Bashuri village at least once. Her official coronation was also to beheld at the temple according to Tantric rites as her husband died. Golok Chattopadhayay,an eminent practitioner of Tantrawas to preside over the coronation ceremony.Meanwhile, the Pathans bought Chaturbhuj the Premier. The latter declined to directly join the Pathan forces against the Queen, but assured of sabotage. Osman Khan andChaturbhuj conspired to capture Bhavashankari on the night of her coronation, when shewould be guarded only by a few of her female bodyguards. Accordingly, Osman led a


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