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1. The 2010 Gross NationalHappiness Index : Part I The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011 . 2. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6.…
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  • 1. The 2010 Gross NationalHappiness Index : Part I The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011 .
  • 2. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 3. Background: Legal code of 1629 “if the government cannot create happiness for its people, then there is no purpose for government to exist.” .
  • 4. 4th King of Bhutan, 1972 “Gross National Happiness is moreimportant than Gross National Product.” .
  • 5. Constitution of Bhutan 2008 Article 9:“The State shall strive to promote thoseconditions that will enable the pursuit ofGross National Happiness.” .
  • 6. Gross National Happiness (GNH) measures the quality of a country in more holistic way and believes that the beneficial development of human society takes place when material and spiritual development occurs side by side toHM Jigme Khesar Namgyel complement andWangchuck, the 5th King ofBhutan, is committed to GNH. reinforce each other. .
  • 7. GNH in Bhutan: profound & rooted “We have now clearly distinguished the „happiness‟ … in GNHfrom the fleeting, pleasurable „feel good‟ moods so oftenassociated with that term. We know that true abidinghappiness cannot exist while others suffer, and comesonly from serving others, living in harmony withnature, and realizing our innate wisdom and the trueand brilliant nature of our own minds.” Prime Minister of Bhutan, 2009 .
  • 8. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 9. GNH has NineDomains: Theseappear in the 10th plan and areMeasured in the GNH Index. .
  • 10. Nine Domains of GNH1. Living Standard2. Health3. Education4. Time Use5. Good Governance6. Ecological Diversity & Resilience7. Psychological Well-being8. Community Vitality9. Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 11. Domains of GNHStandard Domains• Living Standard• Health• Education• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & Resilience• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 12. Domains of GNH• Living Standard• Health• EducationNewer Domains• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & Resilience• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 13. Domains of GNH• Living Standard• Health• Education• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & ResilienceInnovative Domains• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 14. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness6. Weighting7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 15. GNH Index Survey, 2010 CBSCompleted Interviews = 7142Retained Sample size = 6476Sample representative of 20 districts, and by rural and urban areas758 variables, covering all 9 domains of GNHUnusual depth and quality of dataDraws on 2006 Pre-Pilot and the 2008 Pilot GNH Survey .
  • 16. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 17. 33 GNH Indicators wereselected for the GNH Indexaccording to:1) Normative values, official documents2) Statistical properties3) Accuracy across time4) Policy relevance5) Clarity of interpretationThe 33 indicators draw on over 120questions from the survey. .
  • 18. Domain Indicators1 Psychological wellbeing 42 Health 43 Time use 24 Education 4 Cultural diversity and5 resilience 46 Good Governance 47 Community vitality 4 Ecological diversity and8 resilience 49 Living standards 3 Total 33 .
  • 19. Life satisfaction • Health • Living standard • Occupation • Relationships • Work-life balanceSpirituality Positive• Spirituality emotions level • Calmness• Prayer Psychological • Empathy/ recitation Wellbeing compassion• Meditation • Forgiveness• Considerati • Contentment on of Karma • Generosity Negative emotions • Anger • Fear • Worry • Selfishness • Jealousy .
  • 20. Number of Mental health: Healthy days • Able to concentrate • Lost sleep over worry • Playing useful part • Capable of making decisions • Constantly underDisability strain • Difficult to cope with• Long- difficulties term • Able to enjoy disability Health • Able to face problems • Feeling unhappy and that depressed restricts • Losing confidence • Thinking of self as a activities worthless person Self reported health status – 10% weight .
  • 21. WORK Time Use SLEEP .
  • 22. SchoolingValue : Little Knowledgejustification for of:• Killing • Local legends• Stealing and folk stories• Lying Education • Local tshechus• Creating disharmony among and festivals people • Constitution• Sexual misconduct • How HIV/AIDS is transmitted Literacy .
  • 23. Speak native language Artistic skills Cultural• Weaving, Embroide participation: ry, Painting, Carpe ntry, Carving, Scul Cultural • Number of days pture, Casting, Bla Diversity spent in socio- cksmithing, Bambo and cultural events o in a year works, Gold/silvers Resilience mith, Masonry, Leather works, Paper making Driglam Namzha (code of etiquette and conduct) • Importance • Changes in practice .
  • 24. Political participation * Voting * Attending Zomdue at: Government performance • Chiwog level • Gewog level • Creating jobs • Thromdue level • Reducing gapServices between rich and poor• Walking time to • Providing nearest health education care centre • Improving• Waste disposal Good health services• Source of water Governance • Fighting• Quality of corruption drinking water • Protecting• Access to environment electricity Fundamental rights • Preserving cultural and • Freedom of speech & opinion traditions • To vote • To join political party • To form/join tshogpa • To join public service • Equal value of work • Freedom from discrimination .
  • 25. Donations (time & money) • Proportion of household income donated • Days of volunteering Family • Family careSafety • Wish you were Community not part of your• Having been a recent victim Vitality family of crime • Argue too much • Feel like a stranger in family • Family are understanding • Family are a real Community source of comfort relationship • Sense of belonging • Trust neighbours .
  • 26. Responsibility towards Environment Ecological IssuesUrbanization • Pollution ofissues rivers and steams• Traffic congestion• Absence/inadequa • Air pollution te green spaces Ecological • Absence of waste disposal sites• Lack of pedestrian friendly streets Diversity and • Landslides• Urban sprawl Resilience • Soil erosion • Floods • Littering • Noise pollution Wildlife Damage (Rural) • Wild animals are a constraint to crops. • Crops have been damaged by wild animals .
  • 27. Household income per capita Living Standard Assets • Mobile phone • Fixed phone • Personal computer • RefrigeratorHousing • Washing machine• Toilet • Television• Electricity • Livestock• Quality of roof • Land size (5 acres• Persons per room threshold) .
  • 28. Psychological Wellbeing • Life satisfaction • Positive emotions Living Standards • Negative emotions Health • Spirituality • Mental health • Assets • Self reported health • Housing status • Household per capita • Healthy days income • DisabilityEcologicalDiversity andResilience Time Use GNH• Ecological Issues• Responsibility • Work towards environment • Sleep• Wildlife damage (Rural)• Urbanization issues Community Vitality Education • Donations (time & • Literacy money) • Schooling • Community relationship • Knowledge • Family • Value • Safety Cultural Good Governance Diversity and Resilience • Gov‟t performance • Fundamental rights • Speak native Language • Services • Cultural Participation • Political Participation • Artistic Skills • Driglam Namzha .
  • 29. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 30. Weighting: 9 domains are equally weighted 33 indicators, 2-4 per domain Relatively equal weights among 33 Most reliable have larger weights .
  • 31. Weights on the 33 IndicatorsDomain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 32. Equal Weights within the indicators in 3 domainsDomain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 33. 5 subjective indicators receive10% weights only (dark blue); others equal.Domain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 34. In 3 domains, subjective indicators are weighted 20%; objective at 30%.Domain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environmen 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 35. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 36. How much is enough?The GNH Index uses two kinds of thresholds: 1. Sufficiency thresholds 2. Happiness thresholdSufficiency thresholds:Shows how much a person needs in orderto enjoy „sufficiency‟ – how much isenough, normally, to create a happinesscondition. Each of the 33 GNH indicatorshas a sufficiency threshold. .
  • 37. Sufficiency thresholds were set by: International standards: Eg. MDGs, ILO, Habitat National standards: Eg.1.5 x income poverty line Normative judgments: Eg. Positive emotions Participatory meetings: Local advisors gave input - e.g. the threshold for land depends upon its quality. Here in Wangdiphodrang 5 acres is enough. .
  • 38. Psychological wellbeingIndicator Sub-indicator Question Response range Sufficiency Life Health How satisfied are you with your health? 5 (Low-worst) 20-25 Standard of living …with your standard of living?satisfaction To Occupation …with your major occupation? 25 (High Family relationship …with your family relationship? satisfaction) Work life balance …with your work life balance?Spirituality 1 (Not at all)- 4 4 (Very Spirituality How spiritual do you consider yourself? (Very spiritual) spiritual) Do you consider Karma in the course of 1 (Not at all)-4 4 (Always) Karma your daily life? (Always) 1 (Not at all)- 4 4 (Regularly) Prayer recitation How often do you recite prayers? (Regularly) 1 (Not at all)- 4 3 (Occasionally) (Regularly) or 4 (Regularly) Meditation How often do you meditate? Positive Calmness During the past few 5 (Low )-20 15-20 emotions Compassion weeks, how often do you (High positive (Positive Forgiveness experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score) emotion Contentment score) Generosity Negative Selfishness During the past few 5 (Low)-20 15-20 emotions Jealousy weeks, how often do you (High negative (Negative Fear experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score) emotion Worry score) Anger .
  • 39. Health Response range Sufficiency Indicator Sub-indicator Question (worst-best) thresholdSelf Self reported health In general, would 1 (Very poor)- 4 (Good) or 5reported status you say your health 5 (Excellent) (Excellent)health is…statusHealthy Healthy days Number of healthy 0 (Worst)-30(Best) Above 26days days in the past 30 days daysDisability Long term disability Do you have any 1 (Yes)-2 (No) 2 (No) long term disabilities, health/mental problems? Activity limitations Does the long-term 1 (All the time)- 3 (Rarely) or disability restrict 5 (Never) 4 (Never) your activities?Mental 12 item General 12 item General 0-15 (Severe 21-36health health questionnaire health questionnaire distress)-21-36 (Normal (Normal mental mental wellbeing) wellbeing) .
  • 40. Education Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range SufficiencyLiteracy Literacy level Can you read and write in any of the 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) languages?Schooling Schooling What is your highest level of education? 1 (No formal 2 (Class VI) education)-8 (Postgraduate/PHD)Know- Local legend and How would you rate your knowledge 5 (Low knowledge 19-25 and understanding on local legend and score)-25 (High (Knowledgeledge folk stories folk stories? knowledge score) score) Local tshechus How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on local tshechus? Traditional songs How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on traditional songs? The Constitution How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on constitution? HIV/AIDS How would you rate your knowledge on how HIV/AIDS is transmitted? transmission Killing Is killing justifiable? 5 (Low value score)- 14-15 (Value 15 (High value score) Stealing Is stealing justifiable? score) Lying Is lying justifiable? Disharmony Is creating harmony in human relations justifiable?Value Sexual misconduct Is sexual misconduct justifiable? .
  • 41. Cultural diversity and resilience Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range SufficiencyLanguage Ability to How well can you speak 1 (Not at all)-4 (Very 4 (Quite well) or speak mother your mother tongue well) 5 (Very well) tongue now?Cultural Number of How many days do you 1 (None)-5 (More than 20 3 (6-12 days) orparticipation days spend in a year days) 4 (13-20 days) or participated in attending social and 5 (More than 20 cultural acitivities days) socio-cultural (community festivals or activities choku of neighbours)?Artisan skills Artisan skills Do you have any of the 0 skill (Worst)-13 skills One skill or zorig chusum skills? (Best) moreDriglam Attitude Is Driglam Namzha 1 (Not Important)-3(Very 3 (VeryNamzha important? Important) Important-2(code of (Important)etiquette andconduct) Change over How do you percieve 1 (Getting weaker)-3 3 (Getting time the change in practice (Getting stronger) stronger) and observance of Driglam Namzha during the last few years? .
  • 42. Good Governance Indicator Sub-indicator Question Range SufficiencyGovernment Creating jobs Rate the performance of government in 7 (Low 28-25 (Institutionalperformance creating jobs? institutional performance score Reducing gap between rich in reducing gap between rich and poor? performance and poor score) Fighting corruption - in fighting corruption? 35 (High Preserving culture and in preserving culture and traditions? institutional traditions performance ) Protecting environment in protecting environment? - Providing educational in providing educational needs? needs Improving health services n improving health services?Fundamental Freedom of speech Do you feel that you have right to the freedom of 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes)Rights speech and opinion? Vote have right to vote? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Join political party have right to join political party of your choice? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Form tshogpa have right to form tshogpa? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Equal access to join public have right to equal access and opportunity to join 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) service public service? To equal pay for equal have right to equal pay for work of equal value? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) work Free from discrimination have right to the freedom from discrimination? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes)Services Access to health care How long does it usually take you to walk to <60 minutes the nearest health care centre? Electricity Do you have electricity? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Waste disposal How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on 5 (Municipal garbage open land)- 7 pick up) or 6 (Burning) or (Compost) 7 (Compositing) Access to water What is the main source of water for your 1 (River, pond 5 (Protected well) or 6 etc.)-8 (Piped in (Public outdoor tap) or 7 household? dwelling) (Piped water outside house) or 8 (Piped in dwelling) .
  • 43. Good Governance (cont’d) Indicator Sub-indicator Question Range SufficiencyServices Access to health care How long does it usually take you to walk to <60 minutes the nearest health care centre? Electricity Do you have electricity? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Waste disposal How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on 5 (Municipal open land)- garbage pick up) or 7 (Compost) 6 (Burning) or 7 (Compositing) Access to water What is the main source of water for your 1 (River, 5 (Protected well) household? pond etc.)-8 or 6 (Public outdoor (Piped in tap) or 7 (Piped dwelling) water outside house) or 8 (Piped in dwelling) Quality of water How would you rate the quality of your 1 (Very 5 (Very Good) or 4 drinking water Poor)-5 (Good) (Very Good)Political Election Will you vote in the next elections? 1 (No)-2 1 (No) (Yes)participa- The frequency of zomdue attendance in the past 12 At least once Zomduetion participation months .
  • 44. Community vitality Indicator Sub-indicator Que
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    Dec 19, 2017
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