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Big Data for Modelling Interactive Systems in IoT

The Internet of Things (IoT) ideates the flawless interconnection among the things and the webs. It delivers favorable possibilities to build powerful services and applications for the construction of a smart society, smart environment, smart city
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   Big Data for Modelling Interactive Systems in IoT Bhagyashree Mohanta Department of Computer Science Engineering ITER, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan(Deemed to be University) Bhubaneswar, India, 751030. Sritam Patnaik School of Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117583. Srikanta Patnaik Department of Computer Science Engineering ITER, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan(Deemed to be University) Bhubaneswar, India, 751030.  Abstract  — The Internet of Things (IoT) ideates the flawless interconnection among the things and the webs. It delivers favorable possibilities to build powerful services and applications for the construction of a smart society, smart environment, smart city and more precisely a smart world. It enhances the connectivity to each device, effortless data transfer and provides expected services in time that lead to huge data flow in the system. To monitor, manage, organize and the storage purpose the concept of big data came into act. In the generation of IoT, every work is done automatically without human intervention, machine can sense the requirement with the help of highly active sensors and able to act accordingly, and one can control the things remotely without any due. The overall process generates the continuous generation of data in the system. 3vs i.e. Volume, Variety and Velocity of big data technology has the controlling authority to handle such large dataset. This paper surveys the utilities of big data in the field of various intelligent interactive systems (IISs) which includes real-time systems surveil, data management, optimization and prediction.    Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Radio-Frequency  Identification (RFID); Intelligent and Interactive Systems (IISs);  Big Data I.   I  NTRODUCTION   British entrepreneur Kevin Ashton was found to have fabricated IoT concept at Auto-ID Labs with reference to a widely spread network of Radio-frequency identification which is abbreviated as “RFID” secured things in the year of 1999 [1]. IoT is the future aspect of smart technologies. The  principle behind its working is the combination of Information and Communications technology, // web and mobile technology. Introduction of this concept in any area will portray that area intelligently by putting a  prefix “smart” onto that area. The term IoT doesn’t comprise a single element or concept. Rather it comprises a group of concepts such as IISs for the ease of communication between things and big data for mass storage and analysis purpose. The future of IISs and big data concepts highly rely on the future of the concept IoT. IoT provides a platform where all the things like water, electricity, environment, health [2], agriculture [3], safety [4], waste management [5], organization and among the entire, the valued one is education systems are embedded with electronics, software and sensors [6] to the internet, and the internet enabling them to collect and exchange data. It enables the path to connect anytime, anywhere, with anything and anyone by ideally using any network topology with a specific service. Meaning of “Smart” effectively utilizes the sensitive information and communications technology which persists with the Internet Technologies to tackle social, environmental and organizational challenges. That makes an ideal idea of smart technologies in the form of smart water, smart electricity, smart environment, smart health, smart agriculture, smart safety, smart waste management and smart education which ultimately resulting to a “Smart World”. The overall process flow of any IoT systems consists of four phases. First phase typically consists of the networked things like sensors and actuators to sense, collect and data transfer to nearest base station for further processing. The second phase consists of sensor data aggregation systems, analog-to-digital data conversion and data processing. The third phase consists of edge IT processing systems which may be located in remote offices or other edge locations for  pre-processing of the data before it moves to the data centre or cloud platform. The last phase responsible for the storage of huge data, its maintenance and in-depth processing for future analysis in big data or in cloud. Big data is a tremendously huge data set which is computationally explored to publicize the data formats, strides, and interdependence, mainly relating to human  behavior and their interactions. Many organizations, those adopt IoT systems are mainly the victims of storage space as they have to do continues extension to manage the burden of  big datasets of their own storage framework. So, they are attracted towards the Platform as a Service ( PaaS ) model, which is a cloud based application that advances flexibility, conformity, capabilities and a refined framework to store and  process valuable IoT data. II.   R  ECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF I O T According to the time, need and demand, IoT changes its features called generations of IoT. The design of bridged devices came into an existence, from the pre-internet era of 70s. The design was then commonly named as “embedded internet” or “pervasive computing” [7]. In the introductory  phase, the concept is focused on device to device communication through web. In second phase the concept is extended its area to machine - machine interaction. In third  phase the people are also connected to this service. In fourth 105 2018 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Business Analytics 978-1-5386-8431-3/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEEDOI 10.1109/ICDSBA.2018.00026   phase all every day things are consequently added to it. If we consider the overall growth progression, it can be predicted that after 2022 the count of things bridged to the internet overreached the count of population on the earth, it may exceed 50 billion.  A.    IoT Evolution   The below diagram proclaims how nobly the concepts “Internet of Things (IoT)” has surmount all other allied concepts in recognition. Figure 1.   Flow To Represent Progression of IoT.    B.   The Projection of IoT    Figure 2. IoT Technology Projection In the above graph, it is clearly shown the immense evolution in the outreach of Technology with respect to Management, Implementation, Connectedness and Unification. With the swift evolution of IoT technology, we can tickle our diaries, our guardianship and welfare of the society by enabling this concept in every aspect of life starting from the smart village program to smart city [8]  program, even from another corner of the world.   III.   I  NTELLIGENT AND I  NTERACTIVE S YSTEMS (IIS)  USING I O T The key concept of IIS is the connectedness and the instructiveness between the things in the world. So, the fortune of the smart interactive world [9] relies on the fortune of the IoT concept. The IISs are when controlled remotely through some electronics communication medium 106  over the gateway of internet, then the overall concept can be termed as Intelligent and Interactive Systems using IoT. In today’s era IoT plays a major role in vast area such as, everyday’s life, education system, health monitor, intelligent farming system, intelligent waste management system, smart electricity [10] to each households, intelligent election system, smart security systems, defence sector, Traffic management system, smart emergency systems etc, which optimizes the time and complicacy of the life. The ultimate goal of this concept is to ease the lifestyle of human beings with minimum effort and betterment of the society by using Interactive and Intelligent Systems or things over internet. Some of the applications are stated below,  A.    IoT based Smart digital signage system and interactive invisible image sensors   Software-defined networking (SDN) technology [11] enabled IoT can handle interactivity by managing things, communicating data among them i.e. device to device, machine to machine, device to human or machine to human and data acquisition. The IoT smart digital signage systems like Nexnovo i.e. a transparent digital video poster, which is sunlight readable, highly transparent, 24/7 service provider, wifi enabled with some warranty period for loyalty of the  product; Holographic 3D display for customer attraction and sales promotion; plasma screen for better entertainment experience and LED projector to imitate virtual images and for lively experience of different objects. The smart signage system can be easily handled & controlled remotely and can interact with the other devices for better performance. The technology advancement in area like invisible image sensor systems, enable the concept of visibility to a new world. The introduction of Graphene-Quantum Dot based new vision concept in cameras are sensitive to Ultraviolet, Infrared lights and Night vision, where the highly active sensors can detect the invisible aspects of respective things which one want to visualize. The graphene- quantum dot enabled cameras in smart phones can detect the quality percentage of the product or the authenticity of the things and the graphene enabled cameras in vehicles can help to detect the vehicles, things at night by sensing the objects and displays the graphical representation of that objects on the digital transparent and readable video projector.  B.    IoT enabled interactive marketing system   The IoT enabled smart interactive marketing system [12] helps the two targeted market groups such as, the business owner, who wants to sell his products and the customer, who wants to buy the products has to communicate among themselves and reach their needs in an optimal way. With this system, customers can access the portal by filling an application form prepared by the Service Provider (SP) and can able to interact with the system. The application keeps the record of the respective customer’s likes for the future recommendation to buy the product of the customer’s choice with some benefits, which suit customers’ pocket, although the customer doesn't have any inclination towards  purchasing. By applying IoT concept in this field, all cache of the stores’ records will consign to the server to improve the effectiveness of the system. C.   Vocabulary Design for the Communication between  Human--IoT Systems   IoTs are becoming more popular and omnipresent but they hardly provide necessary communication for building awareness and understanding. Users eagerly want to know what the machine has detected and what it tries to convey. So with the help of the proposed vocabulary design of 12 groups [13] such as Dynamic, Obsecration, Actuate functions, Validate, Repudiate, Alert, Endorse, Direct, Reveal issues, Convey reactions, Interchange information, and Associate, the interaction of human with IoT System become consistent and attractive.  D.   The interaction of Human to machine and vice versa on  IoT smart home   Here a software platform is designed through which one can interact with the computers, calendars, weather forecast, internet browsing, security issues etc. To achieve the sophisticated communication between human and machines, some characteristics like study, creation, text recognition of emotional models and other fundamental roles in human to machine intercommunication are implemented [14]. E.    Idea of green technology using IoT    The basic concept of green IoT technology has been evolved premised on energy usage optimization [15]. The newly formed concept of green information and communication technology (GICT) has been realized by green IoT system. With the help of this system a machine can able to sense the unnecessary wastage of energy and can communicate to the other machine to take necessary action to save energy. IV.   R  OLL OF B IG DATA IN I  NTERACTIVE I O T   P ARADIGM  The term IoT itself is a vast concept. IoT produces large amount of continuous data, which will hit directly to the storage space. So, the need of big data comes into live. Big data [16] is a concept of voluminous or commodious structured, semi structured and unstructured data set that has the prospect to be mined/ processed for information generation. The Big data concept is commonly categorized  by 3Vs, such as the voluminous data, immense variety of types of data and the velocity to process the data [17].  A.    Application Areas of Big data in Interactive systems of  IoT    1)    Application of Big data in IoT enabled interactive marketing systems:   As discussed before, through this system the targeted groups can be able to interact with each other to fill their needs. But when the number of users increases enormously, then record keeping and maintenance of records become a serious issue. So the use of big data plays an important role to serve this real time problem. Real time processing requires information to be processed and make the systems readily available and it is desired that the systems behave 107  accordingly as new information is in queue. To achieve this, stream processing computation technique [18] is used, which operates on a continuous stream of data composed of individual items. 2)    Application of Big data in Human - machine interactive system on smart home for IoT: IoT enabled smart home is equipped with many interactive intelligent systems that sense the real time data [19] and act accordingly in real time basis. It includes smart security systems, smart wifi system, smart garage systems, automatic machineries control systems which can be controlled remotely and intelligent voice modulation sensor [20] which can sense the change in mood swing and act correspondingly. IoT collaborates all data flows from different sensing devices which are continuous in nature and  processed and stored in some storage medium like SD cards. As the data generated from the devices are too big due to continuous streaming in nature, these traditional storage medium are not capable enough to handle such big data [21]. Solution to this is to use cloud platform to store, maintain and monitor the big data due to its flexible in nature. There are so many gadgets are readily available in the market which facilitates IoT services for human machine interactive system on smart home such bas NEST thermostat, Amazon Echo/Alexa, Microsoft Cortana, Google Assistant and many more. NEST thermostat will adjust the room temperature according to our preferences and can adjust according to the external weather condition and it can be controlled manually through any interactive communicational devices remotely. It has one more characteristic is there; as it generate continuous flow of data which needs a huge data storage space. It uses cloud based big data to store and process the data and according to the analyzed data it will set the room temperature when needed. Like NEST thermostat, Artificial Intelligent (AI) based mobile applications such as Amazon Echo/Alexa, Microsoft Cortana, Google Assistant are highly used by respective smart phone users. They respond according to the user’s demand and save and processed the data directly through the cloud. 3)    Application of Big data in Interactive system on  smart healthcare of IoT: In the era of IoT technology, the volume of collected data of user is notably big. Implementation of interactive IoT system in healthcare unit [22] brings the right treatment in right time even if the patient is in the rear end from the healthcare unit. There are thousands million of people lived in different part of the world suffers different diseases. For timely check up they maintained their report in respective health care portal which is operated by IoT concept. In the same time medical authorities also keep track of their respective patients separately, so if any emergency will hit the bell they can be ready for the appropriate actions. Therefore big data analyzer is needed. For example, recent workable technologies, such as Fastrack Reflex Smart band, Apple Health Kit, Mi Fitbit and Google Fit may fetch the health record statistics concerning users by observing/recording daily activities, which is monitored by the cloud based big data system. If any abnormality it will detect, it will send an alarm to take necessary action. 4)    Application of Big data in Interactive IoT system in  production: IoT based manufacturing organization deals with a huge amount of data in daily basis, which needs proper examination and processing for accurate and on time  payment. To achieve this, Service Oriented Architecture [23], a cloud based application is used to handle a large amount of data. It helps the managerial effort to get on demand access, flexibility, resource extraction and on time instant payment on purchasing [24]. 5)    Application of Big Data for Interactive IoT Systems in Smart Cities: IoT enabled smart cities concept comprises different area of implementation such as smart traffic control, security, smart parking system, smart transport systems by using high quality sensor, wireless connectivity for data transmission and big data to manage data flow [25]. It focuses mainly on energy efficient IoT systems. The Espinardo University of Murcia proposed a concept of “SMARTIE” [26] for a secure IoT framework which includes traffic management and energy efficient campus. To make the campus energy efficient, the overall problem splits into small sub problems. Then various kind of sensors like temperature sensors, humidity sensors, environmental sensors to sense the data.   According to that data the power energy can be regulated. It can be controlled either remotely or automatically by the machines. If the solar power utility exceeds the daily recruitment then automatically the device cut down the sources and save the rest power for other use like that portion can be supplied to rural areas. To manage the traffic system in that campus, the sensor trams are used and the tracks are also fitted with sensors, which sense the busy route and can able to change the track to avoid unfavorable circumstances. Here the big data techniques are used to extricate comprehension interconnected to dweller confinement, end user serenity predilection, domiciliary serenity state and  power utilization. To achieve this, regression techniques like Radial Functions Networks (RBs) and Particle Filters (PFs) are executed to resolve dweller confinement, whereas as Fuzzy rules [27] and Genetic Algorithms (AGs) are executed for serenity and power utilization expansion. Smart city like Barcelona in Spain, uses a big data technique on Microsoft Azure  to betterment of public transport services, to organize its festivals efficiently and to estimate the impact of tourism.   6)    Application of Big Data for Interactive IoT Systems in Different Smart Enterprises: UPS, one of the largest export companies in the world has been using sensor data and big-data analytics to save money, improve efficiency, and lessen its environmental impact by using sensors on its delivery vehicles to monitor speed, miles per gallon, mileage, number of stops, and engine health. It is also using big data analytics [28] for delivery route optimization is through its project On-Road Integrated Optimization and Navigation, abbreviated as ORION [29]. Virgin Atlantic implemented IoT services in many aircrafts and airplanes, from which it is estimated that 108  a single linked flight is producing approximately a half terabyte of big data. So all in average it is setting big data analytics to monitor these data to analyze efficient fuel consumption. Equipment manufacturing company, John Deere, uses IoT system as “Field Connect” to measure the air and soil moisture, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, amount of rainfall [30] and send the data to the farmers and  big data cloud services helps the farmer for the future  predication of their crop health. Manufacturing and food  production King's Hawaiian partnered with Rockwell Automation to implement IoT and big data services in their  bread production factories which helped employees to monitor factory performance by analyzing the data collected to decrease the factories downtime of machines which lower the maintenance costs of these machines. Disney World’s “Magic Band” is one of the real time examples of IoT and  big data analysis. Disney World collects data of its visitor’s movement with this band to manage traffic in high rated rides and shops and can easily accommodate more visitors. Any visitors can use as access pass by just tapping it to a sensor board in each entrance. C ONCLUSION  IoT is concept which has the ability to change the coming time of individuals, organizations and all. Even it has the  potential to change the future of other technologies like Interactive Intelligent Systems and Big data concepts. Automatically it invites the new thought and technology to work with it. So, the demand is increasing rapidly. It will attract many researchers, scientists to propose new mechanism to incorporate with the IoT concept for the  building of “Smart World”. If we summarize all, it’s clear that IoT hits majorly two areas, are IIS for seamless communication and big data for huge dataset and processing  purpose. Each IoT enabled devices like Nexnovo, Google Glass, LED projector, Mi Fitbit, Apple iWatch, Google Fit, Holographic 3D display, Amazon Echo/Alexa, Microsoft Cortana, Google Assistant, Apple Health Kit & Home Kit and NEST Thermostats can sense, convert, transmit data and act in the way that they are instructed from real world and saves these big data for further analysis and can instruct other devices to act according to the requirement of the time. IoT attracts big data concept due to its continuous flow of data, which needs flexible volume to store variety of data efficiently. From the above section it can be concluded that IoT and big data can work effortlessly in any field, like many famous enterprises adopt IoT with big data to keep records and monitor their products lifecycle to measure efficiencies and to improve their production profit and also IoT big data helps in the farming field to improve the crop quality and to increase the productivity. The above study can predict that in the recent future IoT will overcome the concept of internet and cloud based big data plays a major role to ease the work flow of IoT systems, which is an umbrella term, that covers day to day life activities, farming, education, smart village, smart city concept, smart enterprise system, intelligent health care systems and many more.   R  EFERENCES   [1] 2014–2020-sforecast.pdf [2]   S. B. Baker, W. Xiang and I. Atkinson, "Internet of Things for Smart Healthcare: Technologies, Challenges, and Opportunities," in IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 26521-26544, 2017. [3]   S. Roy, R. Ray, A. Roy, S. Sinha, G. Mukherjee, S. Pyne, S. Mitra, S. Basu and S. Hazra "IoT, big data science & analytics, cloud computing and mobile app based hybrid system for smart agriculture," 2017 8th Annual Industrial Automation and Electromechanical Engineering Conference (IEMECON), Bangkok, 2017, pp. 303-304. [4]   I. B. Aris, R. K. Z. Sahbusdin and A. F. M. 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