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Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: A comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface

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Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: A comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface
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  Accepted Manuscript Title: Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulosenanofibers: A comprehensive investigation on the effect of interfaceAuthor: Karima Benhamou Hamid Kaddami Albert MagninAlain Dufresne Azizan AhmadPII: S0144-8617(15)00029-6DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.12.081Reference: CARP 9600To appear in:Received date: 5-9-2014Revised date: 28-12-2014Accepted date: 30-12-2014Please cite this article as: Benhamou, K., Kaddami, H., Magnin, A., Dufresne,A., and Ahmad, A.,Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: Acomprehensive investigation on the effect of interface,  Carbohydrate Polymers  (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.12.081This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication.As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.Themanuscriptwillundergocopyediting,typesetting,andreviewoftheresultingproof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production processerrors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers thatapply to the journal pertain.  Page 1 of 44    A  c  c  e   p   t  e  d    M  a  n   u  s  c  r   i   p   t Highlights 12  CNC and CNF reinforced bio-based polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared 3  Fully biodegradable high-performance nanocomposites were obtained 4  Detailed investigation of thermal and mechanical properties was reported 5  Solubility parameters were calculated 6  Difference in properties between CNC and CNF is quantified through solubility parameters 78  Page 2 of 44    A  c  c  e   p   t  e  d    M  a  n   u  s  c  r   i   p   t Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: A comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface 8 Karima Benhamou, a,b,c  Hamid Kaddami*, a  Albert Magnin, d   Alain Dufresne*, b,c  and Azizan Ahmad  e 9 a Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Laboratory of Organometallic and Macromolecular Chemistry-Composite Materials, Cadi Ayyad 10 University, Avenue Abdelkrim Elkhattabi, B.P. 549, Marrakech 40000, Morocco 11  b Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGP2, F-38000 Grenoble, France 12 c CNRS, LGP2, F-38000 Grenoble, France 13 d Laboratoire Rhéologie et Procédés, Grenoble-INP, UJF Grenoble 1, UMR CNRS 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France 14  Page 3 of 44    A  c  c  e   p   t  e  d    M  a  n   u  s  c  r   i   p   t e  Schoolof Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, 15 Selangor DarulEhsan, Malaysia. 16 * Corresponding authors: h.kaddami@uca.ma; alain.dufresne@pagora.grenoble-inp.fr  1718 Keywords: PCL-based polyurethane, nanocomposites, cellulose nanofibers, interface, solubility parameters 192021  Page 4 of 44    A  c  c  e   p   t  e  d    M  a  n   u  s  c  r   i   p   t 21 Abstract 22  Novel bio-based polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and 23  polycaprolactone (PCL) diol based PU were prepared by casting/evaporation. Two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), 24 and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by DMA, DSC, and tensile 25 tests and the morphology was investigated by SEM. Bionanocomposites presented good mechanical properties in comparison toneat PU. While 26 comparing both nanofillers, the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties was more pronounced for the nanocomposites based on CNF 27 which could be explained, not only by the higher aspect ratio of CNF, but also by their better dispersion in the PU matrix. Calculation of the 28 solubility parameters of the nanofiller surface polymers and of the PU segments portend a better interfacial adhesion for CNF based 29 nanocomposites compared to CNC. 3031
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