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  Phylum Mollusca   Characteristics    2 Body Parts   o   Head-Foot      Elongated Head –  Anterior Part      Contains feeding, nervous, and sensory structures   o    Visceral Mass      Dorsal with respect to Head-Foot      Contains, digestive, circulatory, and sensory structures      Mantle   o    Attached to the visceral mass   o   Secrete shells in most mollusks      Periostracum      Protein      Outermost layer      Prismatic      CaCO 3 +Organic matter      Nacreous      CaCO 3 +Organic matter      Innermost Layer      Bilateral Symmetry       Coelom      Open Circulatory System (Except Cephalopods)      Presence of Radula   o   Feeding Structure   o   Rows of teeth that are curved posteriorly    o   Chitinous   o   Odontophore      Supports the radula  Class Gastropoda    Largest Class      Marine, Freshwater, and Terrestrial      Torsion   o   Rotation of Body Parts   o   For Defense   o    Water Cleanliness   o   Sensory       Locomotion   o   Smaller Gastropods      Ciliary movement over a mucus trail secreted by glands   o   Larger Gastropods      Muscle contraction to move foot   o   Modificatopns       Attachment and swimming      Feeding and Digestion   o   Herbivore, Carnivore, Scavengers, Parasites   o   Projectible radula through proboscis      Maintenance   o   Siphon      Incurrent and Excurrent siphons   o   Open Circulatory System   o   Hydraulic Skeleton   o   Nervous System      Ganglia   o   Excretion       Ammonia(marine)      Uric acid(Terrestrial)       Sensory Organs   o   Eyes      Photoreceptors      Some are more developed   o   Statocysts      Balance   o   Osphradia      Chemosensing      Reproduction   o   Dioecious & monoecious   o   Love darts   o   Trocophore larva   o    Veliger larva      Significant Organisms   o   Sea Butterfly       Thecosmata o   Sea Angel      Clione limacina limacine   o   Conus Snail      Conus geographus   Class Bivalvia    30K+ Species    Clams, Oysters, Scallops, and Mussels    The Bivalve Shell o    Valve o   Teeth are found the hinge o   Oldest Part    Umbo o    Adductor Muscle    Dorsal end    Close the shell    Gas Exchange o   Gills     Attached at the foot and mantle o   Mantle    Ciliated to move  water inside o   Siphon    Some bivalves have that can take in water    Geoduck     Panopea generosa      Nutrition o   Filter Feeding o   Incurrent water, food is moved by the cilia towards the mouth    Body Systems o   Open Circulatory System o   Mantle is lined with sensory organs    Ospradium    Photoreceptors    Statocysts    Maxima Clam    Tridacna  Maxima    Reproduction   o   Dioecious & Monoecious   o   Protrandic      Male when young   o   External Fertilization   o   Trocophore and veligar larva      Clochidium (larva)      Human Interactions   o   Reduce water turbidity    o   Food source   o   Invasive species      Notable Organism   o   Giant Clam      Tridacna gigas    Can be seen in the Philippines   o   Zebra Mussels       Dreissena  polymorpha Class Cephalopoda    Most Complex invertebrates    Octopus, squid, nautilus and cuttlefish     Cephalopod Shell o   Present in Nautilus o   Reduced in Squids o    Absent in Octopuses o   Called as ‘pen’      Movement and Locomotion o   Jet Propulsion System    Usually for squids o   Mantle contains radial and circular muscles    Usually for nautilus o   Stabilizing fins for balance o   Octopuses crawl in the substrate    Feeding o   Predatory    Sight o   Tentacles    Sunction cups    Sometimes hooks    Body Systems o   Closed Circulatory System o   Sensory    Eyes    Statocysts    Osphradia (Nautili)    Tactile    Chemoreceptors o   Large Brains    Muscle contraction    Sensory and Memory    Decision Making    Defense o   Chromatopores o   Ink glands/sacs    Reproduction o   Dioecious o   Females    Eggs    Nidemental glands o   Males    Testes, spermatophores    Hectocotylus    Notable Organisms    Collosal Squid o    Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni       Blue Ringed Octopus    Mimic Octopus o   Thaumoctopus mimicus   Phylum Annelida    Metamerism o   Segmental arrangement of  body parts o   Hydrostatic skeleton per segment    Higher control of  body o   Injury recovery    Many backup organs o   Tagmatization    Specialization of body segments    Paired, epidermal setae (seta) o   Bristle structures o   Chaetae    Closed Circulatory System    Metanephridia/Protonephridia Class Polychaeta    Mostly Marine    Largest Annelid Class    Presence of Parapodia (Locomotion) o   Paired, un jointed limbs o   Bear chaetae o   Picture 1    Polychaeta worms o   Picture 2    I dunno o   Picture 3    Tormopterus    Feeding and Digestion o   Proboscis o   Predatory, deposit feeders, filter feeders, herbivors o   Specialization of feeding structures o   Twin fan worm     Gas Exchange and circulation o   Gas diffusion across body  wall o   Some have gills o   Close Circulatory system    Respiratory pigments    Nervous System o   Sub/suprapharyngeal ganglia    Coordination, sensory, feeding o   Double vntral nerve cord o   Ganglion pair    Localized movement o   Sensory Organs    2 or 4 eyes    Nuchal system    Chemoreceptor    Statocysts    Tactile receptors    Excretion o   Marine    Excrete water o   Nephridia    Protonephridia and Metanephridia    Functions like a kidney    Regeneration and Reproduction o   High degree of regeneration     Autotomy o    Asexual and Sexual    Dioecious    Epitoky     Atoke (anterior)    Epitoke (gametes)    Notable Organisms o    Platynereis dumerilii o   Pompeii worm       Alivenella pompejana Class Clitellata    Clitellum   o   Eggs are deposited  Subclass Oligochaeta    Terrestrial/marine and freshwater      Feeding and Digestion   o   Scavengers o   Straight tubular digestive system o   Decaying vegetation o   Mouth for ingestion -> Pharynx for pumping food -> esophagus -> stomach/crop/gizzard->intestine->anus    Body Systems o   Closed Circulatory o   Diffusion for gas exchange o   Some have gills o   Nervous System & Sensing    Same with polychaetes    Prostomium    Chemical and mechano receptors    No eyes    Negative phototaxis o   Excretion    Metanephridia    Osmoregulation    Chloragogen tissue    Function like liver    Reproduction o   Monoecious    Sperm exchange o   Seminal vesicles and receptacles o   Cocoon o   Transverse fission Subclass Hirudinea  


Jul 25, 2017
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